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Abstract

This study examines how academic engagement with society can be facilitated by higher education institution (HEI) managers by studying academics’ needs and their managers’ support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (i.e., the determinants of self-determination). Interviews were conducted with managers (n=6) and academics (n=16) affiliated with HEIs from the Hochschulallianz für den Mittelstand in Germany. The findings indicate alignment and gaps between managers and academics. First, the need and support for autonomy were present. Second, managers suggested that academics had relevant competencies, but academics indicated they had a lack of such competencies. Third, managers perceived that there was a strong collaboration between academics; however, academics reported that they experience negative peer effects when collaborating with society. Aiming to bridge the gap using a bonding social capital approach, HEI managers are recommended to strengthen academics’ sense of belonging to an HEI and to promote access to capital and competencies that are within the HEI’s internal network.

Open Access
In: Triple Helix
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Abstract

The broad constructs of learner control and independent/self-directed learning has been well researched in the learning sciences. This research has consistently revealed that under certain circumstances there can be negative consequences when learners are provided with high degrees of learner control. The role for feedback is linked to independent learning and is one of the most powerful influences on learner success. Specifically, as learner assessment is the de facto curriculum, feedback on progress is an essential driver. However, feedback is not discrete practice. Research in the learning sciences reveals that effective feedback involves a number of complex issues, including (a) the effective ‘type’ of feedback (immediate, delayed, knowledge of correct/incorrect response, etc.), (b) the kind of learning outcome (cognitive, intellectual, verbal or attitudinal) and (c) purposes (motivation, information, or contingent). Hence, feedback is an integral part of an instructional dialogue between instructors and learners and the effectiveness changes under different circumstances. The purpose of this chapter is to present a set of heuristics to guide effective strategies for course design based on what we know from the learning sciences on independent learning and feedback.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between advances in neuroscience and learning in six sections. We first discuss the structural characteristics of the brain and the main contributions of neuroscience advances such as neural recycling, neuroplasticity, inhibition, Bayesian brain and brain imaging. We then analyse the types of learning and the stages of skill acquisition and their pedagogical implications.

We determine the neuromediators and neurophysiological mechanisms involved in learning processes. They ensure the control, regulation and orientation of the learner’s behaviour. Through these mechanisms, we present pedagogical recommendations to optimise learning.

We will show, on the one hand, the three main functions that actively participate in the acquisition process (attention, comprehension and memory), on the other hand, the factors that vary the effectiveness of learning.

This chapter ends with a discussion of the issues and limitations of neuroeducation.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

Educators and research centers worldwide are working to better understand about human learning afforded by the confluence of non-invasive brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience to translate research into educational practices and policies. In the process of relentless pursuit, many developments and discoveries on human learning have been reported in the literature. Leveraging on the recent findings in neuroscience, educational researchers are collaborating with scientists to find ways to provide intervention strategies for the optimum learning experience. With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this book features the most recent and advanced research in this area. This chapter synthesizes studies reported in this volume on mind, brain, and education that will shape the future of learning.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

Over the past decade, wisdom research has encountered a radical shift in discourse with respect to neurobiology. This has a profound impact on how wisdom is taught in schools. Educating for wisdom requires teaching students to enrich their values, produce a meaningful life, fulfilling a desired life, and understanding one’s relationship with themselves and others in the world. In this book chapter, we disseminate how educational neuroscience can provide a holistic understanding of wisdom in curriculum. We explore a neurocognitive model with interdependent wisdom components including salience detection, impulse control, reward evaluation, information integration, conflict detection, error evaluation, and self-referential processing, and its relationship to brain regions. Furthermore, these wisdom components entail interpersonal and intrapersonal processes that are foundational to student development. For a more cohesive working definition of wisdom in neuroscience, we propose an integrative model in which brain regions holistically interact in a hierarchical and scale-invariant manner. Small-world networks can enhance the capacity to show the neurodynamics of wisdom in the brain. Finally, we discuss wisdom-based curriculum with the goal to establish practices for cultivating wisdom in educational settings to provide longevity toward student’s well-being beyond the environment of a classroom. This requires the development of schools or curricula in public schools and informal settings that provide instruction for teaching wisdom across ages.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

The nature and processes of wisdom continue to elude us despite the topic being pursued by great philosophers since antiquity, and despite being examined meticulously by pioneering psychologists for several decades. These challenges opened doors for neuroscience, a discipline that has been rapidly growing in the past ten years. Neuroscience may enable us to reverse-engineer wisdom, starting with its neurocognitive components, which then give rise to thoughts, attitudes, and behaviours within the person (i.e., the intrapersonal components). These visible manifestations then lead to the more notable social and interpersonal implications of wisdom. All three components are outlined in this chapter. Additionally, the processes of neurodynamics and small world networks are proposed as the underlying mechanisms that create a cohesive wisdom model within the brain.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

The Learning Sciences are a collective band of disciplines focused on better understanding human learning which range from psychology (mind), neuroscience (brain) and pedagogy (education), but also encompass fields as distinct as philosophy, cultural anthropology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. From the Learning Sciences emerge transdisciplinary insights into the Science of Learning. The end goal of the Science of Learning is improved teaching. Once considered illusive, there are now dozens of evidence-based pedagogies that can be used by all teachers, at all grade levels, in all subjects, which point to a new Science of Teaching. This chapter will explore the theoretical framework used to vet these pedagogies and explain the international consensus-building that was used to identify them. It will then show readers how to apply the framework, highlight some new and often unused pedagogies and end with a call for a new type of educational professional who understands, appreciates and is able to construct the bridges of translational communication needed to bring these ideas to educators in classrooms.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

Computers and computational theory have been the dominant metaphor for how we understand the mind and mental activity. Accordingly, cognition has been defined as computations of symbolic representations. According to Jerome Bruner, who was among the first cognitive scientists, the original goal was to turn away from behaviorism and focus on meaning and meaning-making processes and how human beings make sense of the world and of themselves. When computing emerged as the model of the mind, computability and information processing displaced meaning as the central focus. Concurrently affective and intentional states such as believing, desiring, intending, and grasping meanings came to be regarded as epiphenomena. Alternatively, they have been considered as physiological states, distinct from cognition. There is a growing recognition of the limitations of the dominant computing paradigm for accounting for human behavior. Emerging studies in the brain sciences have focused on affect in relation to behavior. This work has the potential to not only explain affective phenomena but, more critically, to enhance the power to explain cognition and behavior more generally (Dukes et al., 2021). This chapter examines the emerging findings and discusses how they should inform how we think about cognition, learning, and learning environments.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

Science is always a joint venture, an example of collaboration among experts. Nobody can do science alone. We work as a team. One of the great transformations of science today is that the frontiers among disciplines are disappearing and new modalities of work are emerging in theory and practice. Education of children and adults with some kind of disability is a perfect example of this radical transformation, and also a moving example of the profound changes involved in a successful interdisciplinary teamwork. In this chapter I will describe some of my own experiences during the last decades in the education of persons with disabilities in different countries with the enormous support of experts in a variety of disciplines. I would like to express my gratitude to all of them during those years of a friendly and effective teamwork.

In: New Science of Learning

Abstract

The literature is replete with studies examining teacher classroom practices that foster students’ 21st century skills and competencies. However, this literature does not include direct investigation of the grammar of schooling – the very structure of school itself – which continues to drive the actions of teachers and students alike. Coined by Tyack and Cuban in 1995, the grammar of schooling includes: subjects taught in isolation, segregation of students by age and grade, and an expert teacher at the head of a closed classroom charged with evaluating students and assigning them grades. Without understanding the potential habits that students and teachers acquire from this remarkably durable grammar, we cannot evaluate the effectiveness of our massive educational intervention in 21st century student skills. In this chapter, I briefly examine how the grammar of schooling may influence development of doing school habits in teachers, students, and even researchers implementing educational interventions. I then describe how habits have been historically viewed and discuss contemporary, dualist views of habits. After comparing the dualist, computational model of cognition to a more embodied approach, I recommend examining habits and their relationship to the grammar of schooling through the nondualist enactivist model of cognition. Finally, implications are discussed.

In: New Science of Learning