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Abstract

Alligators were perceived as dangerous by early settlers in Florida, and they also reflected the untamed and potentially untameable Florida wilderness. By the 20th century, alligator farms capitalized on the thrill of alligator encounters in controlled theme park experiences. Alligators are tamed in the current farm context and valued increasingly for the products that can be derived from their bodies. This anthrozoological investigation of perceptions of Florida alligators explores how farms define alligators and why visitors might accept these particular constructed images of alligators, concluding with a wider view to consider these perceptions of farmed animals in relation to the idea of the nuisance alligator. The discussion is framed by multi-species studies that rest on notions of embodiment and attentiveness, which in this case push the importance of alligator experience and agency to the foreground.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

Through a series of in-depth interviews asking individuals about their decisions to adopt special-needs companion animals, we discovered that a combination of anthropomorphism and empathy are at play when individuals decide to adopt them. This tendency is explained using David Blouin’s typology of guardians: humanistic and protectionistic guardians anthropomorphized their companion animals, exhibited greater empathy, and were more willing to adopt animals with special needs.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of different videos of an unfamiliar dog (tranquil and active) on subjective mental state measures. All participants watched two videos of an unfamiliar dog (tranquil and active). Subjective measures of stress, anxiety, alertness, attention, likeability, and cuteness were assessed. The results showed that the tranquil dog video significantly decreased anxiety only. Additionally, the active dog video significantly decreased stress and anxiety. Across the videos, the results showed the active dog video significantly improved subjective alertness and attention when compared with the tranquil dog video. Lastly, the active dog video was rated more likeable and cuter relative to the tranquil dog video. The practical implications of these findings could include how to improve various subjective mental states for humans in public settings (e.g., hospital) where nonhuman animals are not always allowed.

In: Society & Animals
Author: Louisa Perreau

As the saying goes ‘good girls go to heaven, bad girls go everywhere!’, whose origin is uncertain, sometimes attributed to American actress and screenwriter Mae West, sometimes to editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine, Helen Gurvey Brown, it was taken up as a slogan by feminists who denounce the sexual norm imposed on women by religions. At a time when the influence of religious fundamentalism on State policies seems to be gaining ground (retreat on abortion laws in the United States, in Poland; Sharia courts in Great Britain, etc.), the object of this research note will be to question the articulations between British Muslim women, State multiculturalism and legislation.

In Britain, since the 1980s, a network of sharia councils has developed to resolve disputes between Muslims, including resolving family problems. Sharia councils thus reveal the place of Muslim women in the United Kingdom on the issue of divorce. Extremely patriarchal, rarely feminist, often undemocratic, the sharia councils appear as places of power. The latter are often compared to Islamic courts, so-called ‘counseling’ religious services or ‘Islamic family services’ to which Muslims wishing to respect divine law and their religious precepts go – especially women. What does this mean for British Muslim women who use these services? How is the British government responding?

In: Youth and Globalization

This paper concerns the intersections between veiling, school and sport, focussing on both legislative elements and formal regulations, as well as the more micro-level practices of physical education teachers in school environments in Finland. Veiling is an extraordinarily politicised topic today, while also being an everyday dress practice engaged in by millions of women worldwide. Sport can be likewise politicised, and certainly is so in the case of veiling. Sometimes seen as resistance to patriarchal structures and cultural traditions, sometimes defended and justified using religious arguments, Muslim women’s physical activities may be understood as a conflictual social field, especially when the women either choose to veil or prefer gender segregated venues for sport. Bringing together realms such as politics, legislation, education, garment design and religion, the debates surrounding female Muslim bodies are at the centre of ideas to do with citizenship and integration in Muslim-minority contexts. In Finland, both the national law and local regulations allow for a great deal of independence for teachers working with veiling students, at the same time as guaranteeing high protection of an individual’s right to freedom of religion. Consequently, negotiation strategies between teachers and veiling students are central for the accommodation of religious dress practices. This is particularly so when teaching physical education, which has specific requirements for students’ outfits from the point of view of safety and practicality. I discuss the complexities created by the fields of law, education, religion, politics and design when they come together in the case of hijabs, sport and physical education.

In: Youth and Globalization
In: Youth and Globalization

In this article, Christine Détrez and Clémence Perronnet discuss the contributions of the sociology of culture to the study of childhood. They trace back the emergence of this approach in France and the theoretical and methodological challenges faced by a field of study that mobilizes concepts from both a bourdieusian theoretical framework and international cultural studies – with a particular focus on the concept of agency. The conversation also touches on the opportunities for future research, particularly on the learning of feeling rules and new digital practices and the early construction of inequalities in science during childhood.

In: Youth and Globalization

This paper addresses a number of fundamental epistemological obstacles faced by researchers interested in studying young people’s cosmopolitanism, more specifically, the normative temptation and “first experience” obstacles. It goes on to tackle the inherent temporality of cosmopolitan behaviour, seeing how it is a fundamentally dynamic phenomenon that entails itineraries, trajectories and pathways through young people’s life cycles. As such, the text proposes six typical trajectories. In terms of temporalities: “the confirmed cosmopolitan,” “late starters,” “cosmopolitan and uncosmopolitan at the same time,” and “disengagement from cosmopolitanism”; in terms of moving through social space: “focusing on social space close to home,” “the ordinary tourist.”

In: Youth and Globalization
In: Youth and Globalization