This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeiraisp. n. and Purenleon rafaelisp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.
Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.
The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto
comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus
, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus
. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomussp. n;Sisyphus australissp. n; Sisyphus bicuariensissp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuussp. n; Sisyphus swazisp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyisp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus
, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis
(syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus
(pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus
. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (); Sisyphus seminulum
; Sisyphus nanniscus
; Sisyphus transvaalensis
; Neosisyphus spinipes () and Neosisyphus barbarossa (). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.
Mantellid frogs present an extensive adaptive radiation endemic to Madagascar and Comoros, being the subfamily Mantellinae the most morphologically and ecologically diverse. The Mantellinae present key innovative evolutionary traits linked to their unique reproductive behavior, including the presence of femoral glands and a derived vomeronasal organ. In addition, previous studies pointed to size differentiation in playing an important role in species’ dispersal capacities and shaping of their geographic ranges. Despite the high phenotypic variation observed in this clade, to date an exhaustive morphological analysis of their anatomy has still not been performed, much less in relation to internal structures. Here, we present a comprehensive skeletal description of a mantellid species, Blommersia transmarina, from the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean, which has potentially undergone a process of moderate gigantism compared to other Blommersia species. We describe its intraspecific skeletal variation utilizing non-destructive volume renderings from μCT-scans, and characterize the presence of sexual dimorphism and size covariation in skeletal structures. Notably, we found numerous signs of hyperossification, a novel structure for mantellids: the clavicular process, and the presence of several appendicular sesamoids. Our findings suggest that skeletal phenotypic variation in this genus may be linked to biomechanical function for reproduction and locomotion.
The connectivity of groundwater aquifers is lower compared to surface waters. Consequently, groundwater species are expected to have smaller distributional ranges than their surface relatives. Molecular taxonomy, however, unveiled that many species comprise complexes of morphologically cryptic species, with geographically restricted distributional ranges in subterranean as well as in surface waters. Hence, the range sizes of surface and groundwater species might be more similar in size than hitherto thought. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the range size of surface amphipods of the genus Gammarus and subterranean amphipods of the genus Niphargus in Iran. We re-analyzed the taxonomic structure of both genera using two unilocus species delimitation methods applied to a fragment of the COI mitochondrial marker, to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and assessed the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the ranges of MOTUs from both genera. Genus Gammarus comprised 44–58 MOTUs while genus Niphargus comprised 20–22 MOTUs. The MLEs of the two genera were not significantly different, regardless the delimitation method applied. The results remained unchanged also after exclusion of single site MOTUs. We tentatively conclude that in this case there is no evidence to consider that groundwater species are geographically more restricted than surface species.
The putative monophyly and systematic position of Merodon nigritarsis group was assessed based on morphological and molecular data of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA genes. The previously reported concept of the group has been redefined, and M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925 is now excluded. The related M. avidus group is redefined here, including the Merodon avidus complex and M. femoratus Sack, 1913. Species delimitation of morphologically defined species of M. nigritarsis group was well supported by COI gene analysis, with the exception of M. alagoezicus Paramonov, 1925 and M. lucasi
. Descriptions are given for three new species of the M. nigritarsis species group: Merodon cohurnus Vujić, Likov et Radenković sp. n., Merodon longisetus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n. and Merodon obstipus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n., and one new species from the M. avidus group: Merodon rutitarsis Likov, Vujić et Radenković sp. n. A lectotype is designated for M. femoratus Sack, 1913, and two new synonymies of this species were proposed: M. biarcuatus Curran, 1939 and M. elegans
. Here we review 18 species from the M. nigritarsis group and six species from the M. avidus group and provide morphological diagnoses of the species groups. Additionally, diagnosis of 12 branches (groups or individual taxa) of M. avidus-nigritarsis lineage, an illustrated diagnostic key for the males, and distribution map are provided for the new species.
The liana genus Paullinia L. is one of the most speciose in the neotropics and is unusual in its diversity of stem macromorphologies and cambial conformations. These so-called “vascular cambial variants” are morphologically disparate, evolutionarily labile, and are implicated in injury repair and flexibility. In this study, we explore at the finer scale how wood anatomy translates into functions related to the climbing habit. We present the wood anatomy of Paullinia and discuss the functional implications of key anatomical features. Wood anatomy characters were surveyed for 21 Paullinia species through detailed anatomical study. Paullinia woods have dimorphic vessels, rays of two size classes, and both septate and non-septate fibers. Fibriform vessels, fusiform axial parenchyma, and elements morphologically intermediate between fibers and axial parenchyma were observed. Prismatic crystals are common in the axial and/or ray parenchyma, and laticifers are present in the cortex and/or the early-formed secondary phloem. Some features appear as unique to Paullinia or the Sapindaceae, such as the paucity of axial parenchyma and the abundance of starch storing fibers. Although many features are conserved across the genus, the Paullinia wood anatomy converges on several features of the liana-specific functional anatomy expressed across distantly related lianas, demonstrating an example of convergent evolution. Hence, the conservation of wood anatomy in Paullinia suggests a combination of phylogenetic constraint as a member of Sapindaceae and functional constraint from the liana habit.
This study investigated the abundance, biomass, species richness, species distribution and feeding types of free-living nematodes in Lake Constance, a deep, oligotrophic lake in Germany. Three water depth zones, the sublittoral (13-30 m water depth), profundal (31-99 m) and deep profundal (100-250 m), were distinguished and 16 sites from each water depth zone were sampled. A high nematode species richness was determined at all three zones, with 129 species in the sublittoral, 113 in the profundal and 92 in the deep profundal. In total, 171 nematode species were identified in this study. The dominant species (relative abundance > 5%) in all water depths were Ethmolaimus pratensis, Eumonhystera filiformis, E. longicaudatula, E. vulgaris and E. andrassyi, Hofmaenneria brachystoma, Ironus tenuicaudatus, Monhystera paludicola/stagnalis, Prismatolaimus intermedius and Tobrilus gracilis. High mean densities of 507-730 indiv. 10 cm−2 were found at each water depth, with a mean overall density of 627 indiv. 10 cm−2. The high abundance resulted in a high mean biomass (1.19 mg wet weight 10 cm−2; range 0.92-1.37 mg wet weight 10 cm−2) for nematodes in Lake Constance. Deposit feeders were the dominant feeding type at all water depth zones (51.7%), followed by epistrate feeders (17.6%), chewers-omnivores (15.9%) and chewers-predators (11.0%). Suction feeders accounted for <4% in the lake as a whole. The structure of the nematode communities in the three zones correlated with sediment texture (water content, clay content), as well as total sulphur and nutrient-related parameters (ATP, bacteria, algae, C:N ratio).
The common method of using lobster-pot catch data for investigating relative abundance, sex and size distribution has serious disadvantages. This study estimates relative abundance and size of the European lobster Homarus gammarus and the brown crab Cancer pagurus using scuba diving techniques. The study areas were the Kåvra lobster reserve (Kåvra) on the Swedish west coast and three very different nearby areas where fishing for crustaceans is allowed: Gullmarsfjorden; the archipelago; and the offshore area. A total of 167 lobsters and 337 brown crabs were observed during 33 scuba dives (each 30 minutes long) in 2018-2019. The estimated mean abundance of lobsters was three to fifteen times as high at Kåvra in comparison with the other three areas (all exact showing that the statistical populations were distinct in comparison with Kåvra; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test). Dive sites in the outer part of the offshore area had the lowest abundance of lobsters although they had seemingly good lobster habitats and low fishing intensity. Large lobsters with a carapace length of ⩾15 cm were found only at Kåvra where they made up 24% of the lobsters. The proportion of large lobsters inside Kåvra continues to increase after 30 years of protection. Together, this emphasizes the impact of fishing on lobster abundance and size distribution, and indicates that limited recruitment and migration might possibly affect offshore lobster “sub populations”. Kåvra was the only area where the abundance of lobsters exceeded the abundance of brown crabs (). However, the abundance of brown crabs at Kåvra was as low as in Gullmarsfjorden () where fishing for crabs is allowed. Possible complex lobster/brown crab interactions together with other factors that might explain the low abundance of the protected brown crab at Kåvra, need to be investigated further.
A wide variety of crossmodal correspondences, defined as the often surprising connections that people appear to experience between simple features, attributes, or dimensions of experience, either physically present or else merely imagined, in different sensory modalities, have been demonstrated in recent years. However, a number of crossmodal correspondences have also been documented between more complex (i.e., multi-component) stimuli, such as, for example, pieces of music and paintings. In this review, the extensive evidence supporting the emotional mediation account of the crossmodal correspondences between musical stimuli (mostly pre-recorded short classical music excerpts) and visual stimuli, including colour patches through to, on occasion, paintings, is critically evaluated. According to the emotional mediation account, it is the emotional associations that people have with stimuli that constitutes one of the fundamental bases on which crossmodal associations are established. Taken together, the literature that has been published to date supports emotional mediation as one of the key factors underlying the crossmodal correspondences involving emotionally-valenced stimuli, both simple and complex.