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Abstract

This paper examines the challenges associated with applying copyright laws that are limited to specific regions in today’s interconnected world. It also explores how private international law regulations come into play when addressing conflicts arising from cross-border copyright disputes. The primary focus of this article is on key issues like initial ownership and the transfer of copyright as governed by private international law in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Additionally, it discusses the influence of legal doctrines from Switzerland and Germany on the legal systems of these countries, particularly their preference for the lex loci protectionis rule. Furthermore, the authors consider how private international law has evolved in the Czech and Slovak Republics when addressing cross-border copyright disputes. Both countries have adopted the lex loci protectionis connecting factor for copyright matters and address the concept of the initial copyright owner in a way that closely resembles the solution provided in Article 3:201(2) of the clip Principles.

Open Access
In: Review of Central and East European Law
Free access
In: Review of Central and East European Law
Authors: and

Abstract

Transparency has been touted as a cure for facilitating the independence of candidates selected by the States for international tribunals and, therefore, for increasing the legitimacy of these tribunals. Based on a case study of the judicial selection procedure of the ECtHR judge in Georgia, this article suggests that emphasizing the potential of transparency and publicity of the national selection process is misleading because even the drastically enhanced transparency of the process is not a cure for its higher legitimation. By connecting the scholarship on transparency of the selection process for the judges of international tribunals with the literature on informal governance networks, this article cautions against the excessive focus on transparency at the expense of a deeper understanding of the local context in which the selection and nomination processes occur. Drawing on informality studies in the former Soviet Union, the article aspires to initiate a discussion on the policy reform steps pertaining to the operations of informal governance networks in judicial selection processes. This article presents a more realistic and restricted conception of transparency – transparency specialis – which we advocate, will be useful in designing the national judicial selection process. Transparency specialis is an understanding that transparency of the selection process is useful; however, where informal governance is prevalent, transparency solely will not result in a fair and impartial process without the relevant and all-encompassing judiciary reforms.

Open Access
In: Review of Central and East European Law

Abstract

This article aims to evaluate modifications to the system of measures of extraordinary appeal in Polish criminal proceedings that have occurred over the past few years from the point of view of legal certainty as the core element of the rule of law. The paper provides answers to the following questions: Do the newly introduced measures of challenge: a complaint against the “cassatory” judgment of an appellate court adopted in 2016 and an extraordinary complaint introduced in 2018, along with the “traditional” extraordinary measures of challenge: a cassation appeal and a motion for the reopening of proceedings, form a coherent model of mutually complementary measures? Has the introduction of the new measures of challenge contributed to quicker proceedings, that is, expedited the final decision in criminal cases while maintaining the standard of substantive justice? The analysis of the legal basis and practice of applying the two measures brought the authors to the conclusion that the first one (the complaint against a cassatory judgment of the appellate court) may contribute to obtaining a final judgment in the case within a reasonable time. Moreover, it does not compromise the coherence of the system of appeal measures in Polish criminal proceedings. On the other hand, the second remedy – an extraordinary complaint generates a long-term condition of legal uncertainty and undermines the principle of legal certainty, a key element of which is the institution of the finality of judgment.

In: Review of Central and East European Law

Abstract

The standard terms and conditions that are appended to cross-border commercial contracts frequently contain jurisdiction clauses. Different legal systems have divergent rules and practices regarding these clauses, however, which may affect their validity and hence undermine certainty and predictability in international commerce. Thanks to its geostrategic location, Turkey is an important trading partner for some of the leading global trade players, particularly the European Union. Hence, companies doing business in Turkey may frequently include jurisdiction clauses in favour of a foreign court in standard terms and conditions. This paper examines the validity of such jurisdiction clauses from a Turkish legal perspective, with examples from case law.

In: Review of Central and East European Law
In: Review of Central and East European Law

Abstract

An éminence grise of human rights – the principle of accountability – has been continuously advancing its normative presence in international law and rights discourses in the last couple of decades. Its transformative promises, on the other side, are hindered by the conceptual dubiety rooted, inter alia, in the non-translatability of the concept to many world languages. The current article attempts to examine how universal aspirations about the principle are appropriated in local contexts of the Central Asian region. In the outset, the research scrutinizes theoretical perplexities around the term and argues for the (obscured) role of law in these discussions. Then, drawing on doctrinal and empirical research in Central Asia, it converses the ways accountability is translated, engaged, and valued as the idea. Findings reveal the heterogeneity of approaches to accountability, and the reiterative relations between the word and the concept, informed by the region’s historical past, political regimes, one’s language and education. The article exposes often omitted pitfalls of the existing multilingual setting of international law and its institutions, which undermine the communicative value of local languages in the region.

Open Access
In: Review of Central and East European Law
Free access
In: Review of Central and East European Law
Author:

Abstract

A response to Rosalind Dixon’s Responsive Judicial Review (Oxford University Press 2023) assessing her theory’s prospects and caveats in the Romanian constitutional context. The piece analyses recent case law from the Romanian Constitutional Court and highlights three important shortcomings that limit the applicability of Dixon’s framework: the tendency toward formalism in constitutional interpretation, an impoverished rights review culture, and the persistent conflictual positioning of the Constitutional Court vis-à-vis other constitutional actors. The article ends by speculating on developments that may yet render responsive judicial review more of a reality in Romanian constitutionalism than present conditions may allow.

Open Access
In: Review of Central and East European Law
Author:

Abstract

The article analyses how wide and general conclusions are formulated in case law, using a sample of decisions of the Czech Constitutional Court from 1998 and 2018. The article shows tendencies towards institutionalisation of maximalist decision-making in the form of formulating general principles as starting points for decisions made in individual cases. Another important observation is connected with the changing form of maximalist judicial decisions, shifting from maximalism characterised by depth of the reasoning towards maximalism manifested in the width of impacts of an individual case, whereby the Czech Constitutional Court has been strengthening its position vis-à-vis other branches of government. In the conclusion of the article, it is emphasised that maximalism, in terms of separation of powers, rather represents an anti-systemic element in the laws of countries with civil-law legal system, such as the Czech Republic.

In: Review of Central and East European Law