Little is known about racial identity claims of African migrants living in Israel who originate from countries where race is not a dominant identity marker. This article examines how Eritrean migrants, coming from a country where race-based social organisation is not prevalent, strategically adopted ‘Black’ as their identity marker in Israel. Online newspaper reports and conversational interviews with four Eritrean migrants were used as sources of data. During various anti-deportation protests, Eritrean migrants held signs with slogans referring to themselves as Black. Some of the slogans include: ‘Do Black lives matter in Israel?’, ‘Black or White I am human’, ‘Deported to death because I am Black’, and ‘Now I am White, will you deport me?’ I argue that for first generation Eritrean migrants in Israel, Black racial identity was adopted strategically as a political identity of social mobilisation and resistance in the face of a racialised and exclusionary migration policy.
The article argues that there are three senses of the term African diaspora – a continental, a cultural and a racial sense – which need to be distinguished from each other when conceptualising Black African diasporas in Europe. Although African Diaspora Studies is occupied with African diasporas in a racial sense, usually it has conceptualised these in terms of racial and cultural identities. This is also true of the past decades of African Diaspora Studies on Europe. This article makes an argument for a socio-political conceptualisation of Black African diasporas in Europe that includes, but goes beyond, matters of identity and culture.
Non-formal apprenticeship opportunities have a clear record of effectiveness, as evidenced by several research studies. After completing short-term vocational training, apprentices demonstrate the required vocational skills. How is learning constructed in a non-formal learning process? What forms of interaction are developed? What are the determinants of the effectiveness demonstrated by apprentices?
This article answers these questions by analysing data from a survey that evaluates the elements of the training context and the level of skills acquired by apprentices. It shows that there is great flexibility in the organisation and techniques of learning, as well as permanent interdependence between apprentices, which facilitates the co-construction of skills.
Several programmes by government and non-governmental organisations aimed at improving maternal health in many sub-Saharan African nations have not achieved significant results. Use of traditional maternal care services has been identified as still prevalent and thus a possible factor. This study investigated determinants of use of traditional birth services (tbs s) among patrons in tbs-inclined communities of Nigeria and Ghana. A total of 180 and 160 patrons of tbs s were selected from the respective countries, using a multi-stage procedure. The most utilised tbs s include home delivery, concoctions/herbs and family planning. Educational level, constraints to using conventional services, income, and perceived social and economic advantages significantly influenced utilisation. Patrons in Nigeria had better perceived relative advantages of tbs than Ghana, while the accessibility of conventional maternal services, performance rating and overall utilisation of tbs s did not differ significantly between the two countries. Social bonds and economic status were the main reasons for continued patronage of tbs s.