This article rethinks what are perhaps the most important attempts at making peace in modern Chinese history: the first post-World War II peace talks convened in Chongqing, between the two old foes of the Chinese Civil War. Previous studies treat the peace conference as a sideshow to the subsequent full-scale civil war. Examining the political and military situation in China toward the end of World War II, this article argues that a peace agreement was needed for both parties. The core of the article examines the hitherto unexplored aspects around the negotiating table: the debate, disagreements, and compromises, and the American mediator’s attempt to alter the dynamics of the peace talks from an inherently biased position. It finds that the history of the Chongqing negotiations is more important to our understanding of China’s struggle between peace and war in the modern era than previously acknowledged.
This article reports on the author’s initial research on the motivations of Chinese students to study in Indonesia since 2013 when President Xi Jinping proposed that Indonesia become involved in China’s “Belt and Road” Initiative. As part of the ongoing research by the Indonesian Studies Center of Fujian Normal University, this paper explores current trends and conditions of student exchanges between Indonesia and China. The primary motivation for Chinese students to study abroad has usually been to obtain a better quality of education and an international degree, something that is more encouraged under the Belt and Road Initiative. It was found, however, that the number of Chinese students studying in Indonesia has not increased significantly during the past five years. There are several structural factors hindering the successful implementation of student exchange programs. These may be directly related to students’ place of origin, the majors they choose, or the level of the degrees which they obtained.
The Belt and Road Initiative (bri) has encouraged many prc nationals to move to Indonesia as (informal) entrepreneurs, firm managers, expatriates, petty traders, migrant laborers, or to accompany family members. It is likely that hundreds of thousands of prc nationals have regularly stayed in Indonesia since between 2000 and 2017. This pilot study found that most new Chinese migrants (xinyimin) were middle- or lower-class people from rural areas in the prc. With limited knowledge and capital, it was difficult for them to achieve a stable and affluent life in the major cities of the prc. However, by moving to Jakarta, their limited assets had greater value because of the development gap between Indonesia and the prc. Most such migrants to Indonesia obtain more promising career opportunities, achieve higher socioeconomic status, and enjoy comfortable lives. Those from coastal prc tend to be managers of large firms; those from the inner regions of the country tend to be petty traders, self-employed, labor migrants, or are hired as local staff. The former are more likely to be conservative with respect to Indonesian society and to align themselves with the prc discourse on the bri; the latter are more responsive to Indonesian society. In general, the fewer resources migrants have in the prc, the more likely they are to settle in Indonesia.
This article investigates how Taiwanese American writers represent Taiwan history in literary works with a focus on a female perspective as a way of reconstructing identities and repositioning Taiwan on a global scale. With the case studies of the first-generation Taiwanese American writer Joyce Huang’s Yangmei Trilogy (2001–2005) and the multiethnic second-generation writer Shawna Yang Ryan’s Green Island (2016), this article employs Shu-mei Shih’s “relational comparison” as a theoretical approach to analyze generational differences and transformative identities in these novels and argues that these authors’ writings on Taiwan history in the United States embody the transnational connection between the homeland and the host state. More importantly, by adopting similar historical materials and distinct narrative strategies, these novels demonstrate the involved multifaceted political meanings and cultural interventions by situating Taiwan in the related national, transnational and world histories and in doing so connect and compare Taiwan with other parts of the world.
This article considers the pathbreaking developments that are quickly changing the field of Chinese diaspora studies. China’s rise and its ongoing integration in the world and the concomitantly changing international position of Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan launched a wave of Chinese elite students studying abroad, of nouveau riche emigrating to the West, and of returning Chinese recent emigrants. This brought forth a new discourse on the Chineseness and the Sinophone world that reshaped the meaning of how an ancestral hometown and host countries connect, and of the imagery and meaning of being Chinese, including being Chinese Overseas. Ironically, the new discourse, however sophisticated, global, and multidisciplinary, is primarily produced by non-Chinese and expatriate Chinese scholars. The challenge here is that, for many decades, political and ideological considerations worldwide have motivated the scholarship on Chinese diaspora, by both Chinese and non-Chinese scholars. A holistic approach, which frames Chinese diaspora as an integral part of world history, may help to meet this challenge.
The research in this report is a first effort at understanding the differences among Chinese descendants in Indonesia concerning their views on the tradition of selecting an auspicious date. The study is based on interviews with twenty people of the older and twenty people of the younger generation of Chinese descent in Glodok Chinatown in Jakarta. The interviews reveal that the dominant factor that influences the views of the older generation is their life’s experience with this tradition, whereas for the younger generation the existence of the tradition within the family is dominant. The dominant factor that causes respondents to not believe in this tradition is their religious belief. The study also reveals that a lack of understanding of the background and history of selecting auspicious dates in the Chinese community is a major cause for the older as well as the younger generation to be reluctant to transmit this tradition to the next generation.