Pleasing lacewings (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) are a group of Neuroptera well known for the sexually dimorphic antennae (unipectinate in male, filiform in female). However, in the dilarid genus, Berothella
, the male antennae are not pectinate but thickly filiform. The genus is the sole representative of the recently established subfamily Berothellinae Liu, U. Aspöck & H. Aspöck, 2017, and includes three species from the Oriental region. So far each of the three species is known by a single male specimen. Here we describe two new species of Berothella, i.e., B. falcatasp. n. and B. weniisp. n. from China based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. Moreover, we report on the first female of Berothellinae based on specimens of the newly discovered species. The female genital characters of Berothellinae are compared in detail with those of the other dilarid subfamilies. The distribution data of Berothellinae is updated.
The Neotropical harpactorine assassin bug genus Acanthischium
(Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorini) includes four valid species: Acanthischium maculatum
(with ten color varieties proposed by Stål ), Acanthischium haglundi
, Acanthischium superbum
, and Acanthischium invium
. A taxonomic revision and a morphological phylogenetic analysis were carried out to test species limits and to propose a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships. As a result of the phylogenetic analysis, Acanthischium is characterized on its external morphology by the elongate postocular region, posterior margin of the pronotum with spines, ventral surface of protrochanter with apical and basal protuberances, profemur wider than mesofemur, and protibia strongly curved. After the taxonomic revision we propose nine valid species, taking into consideration characters of external morphology, male and female genitalia, and color patterns: Acanthischium dimidiatumstat. rev.; Acanthischium flavicepsstat. rev.; Acanthischium haglundi
; Acanthischium kunasp. nov. from Panama and Colombia; Acanthischium maculatum
; Acanthischium meloaesp. nov. from Suriname; Acanthischium nigrumstat. rev.; Acanthischium semiflavumstat. rev.; and Acanthischium superbum
. We further synonymize A. invium
with A. superbum. All but one of the species ‒ A. flaviceps ‒ were included in the phylogenetic analysis, in which Acanthischium was found to be monophyletic, with the following set of relationships: (A. haglundi + (A. nigrum +(A. dimidiatum (A. maculatum, A. semiflavum, A. kuna, A. meloae, A. superbum)))). The resulting phylogenetic pattern indicate a body color transition from drab to more vivid ones, such as orange or red. The species exhibiting red and orange colorations are found in a clade, suggesting an underlying biological phenomenon, such as wasp mimetism.
(Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Tritomini) is revised. Species currently in the genus, M. pauperculus () and M. vernix (), are reviewed. Five new species are described: M. careorufussp. nov., M. melinatrumsp. nov., M. rubeussp. nov., M. rubicundussp. nov., and M. rufussp. nov., with a dichotomous key to members of the genus also provided.
Holopothrips is a diverse group of thrips associated to galls in the Neotropics, with a variety of host plants and wide morphological diversity. Relationships to other Neotropical groups have been proposed, but are still untested, and the monophyly of the genus remains doubtful. Here, we perform a phylogenetic analysis of Holopothrips, based on morphological characters. A total of 87 species were included in the matrix and eight analyses were carried out, but all of them failed to recover Holopothrips as a monophyletic grouping. Bremer and Bootstrap support values were low, and the topologies varied among all analyses, with uncertain internal relations for the ingroup. These results indicate that the relationships for Holopothrips species, and the proposed related genera, are more complex than previously reported; and morphological characters may not be enough to recover the evolutionary story within this group. We also discuss the influences of different character coding, continuous characters and weighting schemes in our results.
is a small genus of soldier flies endemic to Australia, previously thought to comprise only two described species and suspected to have a role in pollination. Six new species of Antissella are named, described and illustrated herein, and an updated identification key to all known species is provided. The new species include: Antissella alicespringsensis Lessard & Woodley sp.n.,Antissella elongata Lessard & Woodley, sp.n., Antissella kalbarriensis Lessard & Woodley sp.n., Antissella nigricentralis Lessard & Woodley sp.n.,Antissella ottensorum Lessard & Woodley, sp.n., and Antissella purprasina Lessard & Woodley, sp.n. A lectotype and paralectotype are also selected for Antissella quinquecella (). Eight species of Antissella are now recognised from Australia. Three of the new species are known from areas burned by the devastating 2019/2020 Australian summer bushfires. Now that they are formally named and described, the species may be recognised in future bushfire recovery monitoring programs.
This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeiraisp. n. and Purenleon rafaelisp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.
Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.
The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto
comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus
, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus
. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomussp. n;Sisyphus australissp. n; Sisyphus bicuariensissp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuussp. n; Sisyphus swazisp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyisp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus
, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis
(syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus
(pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus
. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (); Sisyphus seminulum
; Sisyphus nanniscus
; Sisyphus transvaalensis
; Neosisyphus spinipes () and Neosisyphus barbarossa (). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.
Northwest African material previously ascribed to the subspecies Nephrotoma guestfalica surcoufi () proved to belong to two distinct morphological forms, the true N. g. surcoufi from Algeria, and Tunisia, and the here newly introduced Nephrotoma guestfalica vaillanti n. subsp. from Morocco. With the distinction of the new form, four subspecies of Nephrotoma guestfalica (Westhoff, 1879) are now recognized, all occurring in the western Palaearctic. An identification key for the males of the four taxa of Nephrotoma guestfalica s.l. is provided. The male terminalia of the four taxa are illustrated. The distribution of the four subspecies is summarized, based on material examined and published data. A map showing the currently known distribution of N. guestfalica surcoufi and N. guestfalica vaillanti is presented. Nephrotoma guestfalica guestfalica is recorded here for the first time from Croatia.