In the first half of the fourth century Bishop Porphyrius donated a mosaic floor for the “Basilica of Paul” at Philippi’s city center. What can we know about Christians in Philippi in the three and a half centuries between Paul’s correspondence with Philippi and the founding of Porphyrius’ Church? To answer this question, this article describes the earliest archaeological data, summarize the information derived from Paul’s correspondence, the mission-narratives in three Acts of Apostles as well as the Letter of Polycarp and some indications of the reception of the letter to the Philippians. While historical Christians remain almost invisible at Philippi, there is ample evidence that Philippians was read as a becoming martyrs farewell address to his beloved community and that Philippi became one (among other) important pilgrimage sides at which the Paul’s martyrdom was remembered.
The aim of this study is not to evaluate how successful the Christian mission in Cappadocia was in the first three centuries—which is at the base of Harnack’s masterpiece Mission und Ausbreitung, a work which reflects his own cultural and intellectual formation—but to update and, where possible, integrate new evidence and to understand the different and changing relationships that were formed between the followers of the gospel and the existing forms of paganism and Judaism. These themselves represented mixtures and syncretisms deriving from the encounter between Jewish and indigenous religious ideas. In particular, the worship of Theos Hypsistos came in contact with or confronted the messages of the Gospels not as a winner or a loser but as a co-protagonist in a variegated and nuanced cultural canvas. Harnack concluded that by the time of the Council of Nicaea Christianity, although not prevalent everywhere, had nevertheless subordinated the rival syncretisms. Early Cappadocian Christianity, however, was poised between paganism and Judaism and struggled to impose itself in the distinctive social environment of the region. It is almost impossible to draw a clear boundary between the ‘henotheistic’ and Judaizing pagan survivals.
The contribution provides an overview of the early Christian epigraphic evidence from the island of Cyprus divided into its main categories. After a survey of earlier studies and the Christian tradition on the island, the study focuses on significant or newly discovered documents, which highlight the characteristics, peculiarities and difficulties presented by the Christian epigraphic habits in Cyprus.
This chapter examines excavations to the east of the Roman Forum and the Octagon complex, and focuses on the buildings in two insulae demarcated by the surrounding streets. Insula 4 was originally a grand Roman domus built during the 4th century CE. During the 5th century, Insula 4 was divided into two domestic units, but in the 6th century the installation of a wine press and the expansion of storage indicated that a good portion of the buildings was given over to wine production. Partial excavation of Insula 5 reveals three units that seem to be designed for autonomous activities in workshops and simple dwellings.