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This work is a translation of the Xiang'er commentary to the Daodejing and Jao Tsung-i's (1917-2018) supplemental notes and analysis. Jao Tsung-i offers a historically and hermeneutically rich study of the Xiang’er Commentary, discovered in the Mogao caves at Dunhuang in the final years of the Qing Dynasty, and its author Zhang Daoling. Opening a new and fascinating window into the early reception of the Daodejing, Jao Tsung-i also uncovers the important influence texts such as the Scripture of Great Peace (Taiping jing) had on Celestial Masters Daoism and the construction of the Xiang'er commentary.
The global nature and seriousness of the threats to biodiversity have created a pressing need for international law. In 1992, under the aegis of the United Nations, States adopted the Convention on Biological Diversity. Numerous sectoral and/or regional conventions coexist alongside it, as well as a body of customary rules. The study of international biodiversity law also leads us to go beyond the issues of protection and preservation, to address the questions raised by the use and exploitation of biodiversity. In this respect, international biodiversity law interacts, and sometimes conflicts, with other rules of international law.
The ambition of this book is not to offer an exhaustive presentation of an abundant but still scattered body of law, but rather to contribute to its conceptualization. International biodiversity law is also an excellent laboratory for studying current developments in contemporary international law, notably the institutionalization of cooperation, the development of secondary law, the articulation between customary and conventional rules, and innovative mechanisms for monitoring and assisting States.
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In der Frühen Neuzeit avanciert der Schreibkalender zu einem der prominentesten Medien und generiert mit dem Kalenderschreiben eine völlig neue Kulturpraktik. Das geht nicht spurlos an der zeitgenössischen Literatur vorbei: Auch außerhalb des Kalenders wird in verschiedenen Texten kalendarisch geordnet und geschrieben. Diese Studie untersucht erstmals diese kalendarischen Spuren in der frühneuzeitlichen Literatur. Hierfür wird ein materialwissenschaftlich inspirierter Zugang gewählt: Der Schreibkalender, seine besondere materiale Faktur und die damit verbundenen Praktiken dienen als Ausgangspunkt für die literaturwissenschaftlichen Analysen.

In the early modern period, the calendrical diary became one of the most prominent media and generated a completely new cultural practice of calendar writing. This also impacted contemporary literature: even beyond calendars, numerous texts were organised and written following the style of calendars. This study is the first to analyse these calendrical traces in early modern literature. For this purpose, a material culture studies approach is chosen: The literary analyses is based on the calendrical diary, its particular materiality and the practices associated with it.
The Aims and Methods of Postcolonial International Law, by Chin Leng LIM, Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Principle Jura Novit Curia in International Judicial and Arbitral Proceedings, A Window on International Adjudication, by Attila M. TANZI, Professor at the University of Bologna

These lectures focus on one of the aspects of adjudicative discretion in international litigation and on the rules and principles that constraint it. Namely, on the boundaries of the freedom of international courts and tribunals within which they may apply the applicable law to the dispute by distancing themselves from the legal arguments advanced by the parties. Jura novit curia is researched in combination with the cognate principles ne ultra petita, ne infra petita and non liquet. The analysis goes to the core of the adjudicative function, whose rationale emerges as threefold, thus, entailing a threefold application of jura novit curia: i.e., within the inter-state, human rights, and criminal law adjudicative contexts. The overarching procedural principle of the right of the parties to be heard appears to legitimise maximum utilization of jura novit curia in all three contexts, thus, suggesting enhancing interactive proactivity from the bench.
Salomon van Til (1643–1713) and the Cartesio-Cocceian Debates in the Early Modern Dutch Republic
In Towards a Reformed Enlightenment: Salomon van Til (1643–1713) and the Cartesio-Cocceian Debates in the Early Modern Dutch Republic, Matthias Mangold offers the first in-depth investigation into the theological and philosophical convictions of an influential, yet hitherto much neglected, Dutch theologian working around the turn of the eighteenth century.
With its strong contextual approach, this analysis of Van Til’s thought sheds new light on various intellectual dynamics at the time, most notably the long-standing conflict between the Voetian and Cocceian factions within the Dutch Reformed Church and the reception of Cartesian philosophy in the face of emerging Radical Enlightenment ideas.
Les blockchains et les crypto-actifs, c'est-à-dire les crypto-monnaies et les jetons, posent des défis de premier ordre au droit international. En l'absence d'un lien significatif avec un État particulier, ils semblent échapper à l'empire du droit étatique, en accord avec les ambitions de leurs créateurs. Ce cours décrit tout d'abord les bases technologiques des registres distribués ainsi que la philosophie anti-étatiste sous-jacente. Ensuite, il met en exergue les dangers créés par la technologie, tant pour les intérêts publics que privés. Des alternatives à la régulation par l'État, telles que la théorie du « code fait loi » (code is law) ou la lex cryptographia, sont discutées et finalement rejetées. Au contraire, ce cours met l’accent sur les diverses méthodes permettant de déterminer le cadre juridique applicable, tant dans le domaine du droit public de la réglementation que dans celui du droit privé. Il plaide en faveur d'une uniformisation croissante des règles et d'une coopération accrue entre les États dans ce domaine, afin d’assurer à la fois le développement de la technologie et la protection des intérêts publics et privés. Sur la base d'une étude comparative et internationale détaillée, de nouvelles règles spécifiques pour les acteurs, les transactions et les actifs de la crypto économie sont alors proposées en vue d'atteindre un nouvel équilibre entre droit et technologie.
Making Sense of Soft Law, by E. HEY, Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam
These lectures explore how soft law instruments contribute to the development of normativity. They illustrate that the (re)construction of normativity is the outcome of the interaction between soft law instruments and between soft law instruments and hard law. These interactions take place in institutional settings, established by both soft and hard law instruments. These institutional settings, in turn, provide the decision-making process by way of which substantive normativity is (re)constructed at various points in time and in a variety of institutional settings. Three categories of soft law instruments are identified: soft law instruments that provide input for developing legally relevant infrastructure, soft law instruments that are part of legally relevant infrastructure, and soft law instruments that are part of regulation. In legally relevant infrastructure, the aim is to regulate the activities of States. In regulation, the aim is to regulate human activity, even if the addressees of the regulations are States.

The Inviolabilities of the Diplomatic Mission, by G. R. B. GALINDO, Associate Professor at the University of Brasilia
Not only persons, but also the diplomatic mission enjoys inviolabilities that require from the receiving state a duty of abstention and a duty of protection.
This course aims to depict different inviolabilities of the diplomatic mission (the premises, the archives and documents, and the official correspondence) and similar regimes of protection (communication and the diplomatic bag). Moreover, the application of circumstances precluding wrongfulness on what regards the inviolabilities of the diplomatic mission and similar regimes of protection as well as the relationship between the inviolability of the diplomatic premises and diplomatic asylum are scrutinized.
It is contended that the inviolabilities of the diplomatic mission are a fundamental and essential piece of past and present diplomatic law and international law in general.

Le droit international du désarmement : entre idéalisme et réalisme, par J. M. GOMEZ-ROBLEDO, juge à la Cour internationale de Justice
Ce cours retrace l´histoire du droit international du désarmement nucléaire, tant dans la perspective des accords bilatéraux entre les deux grandes puissances dotées de l´arme atomique (les États-Unis et l´Union Soviétique suivie de la Fédération de Russie), que dans celle des traités multilatéraux, à vocation universelle et régionale, qui ont pour but la non-prolifération et la cessation de la course aux armements nucléaires en partant d´approches différentes mais complémentaires. Il en ressort la conviction de la communauté internationale d´œuvrer en vue de l´interdiction de l´arme nucléaire, afin de parvenir à un monde libre de l´arme qui a la capacité, comme nulle autre, d´éliminer toute forme de vie sur la planète. Dans cette quête, la nature unique de cette arme et ses conséquences humanitaires catastrophiques conduisirent à l´émergence d´une opinio juris communis qui précéda l´établissement de la règle de droit conventionnel au bout de laquelle son interdiction est finalement réalisée.
Olivier Corten, Le champ juridique international
Plutôt que de le concevoir comme un système ordonné de règles ou comme le produit des besoins ou des aspirations de la communauté internationale, ce cours appréhende le droit international par référence à la notion de « champ juridique », inspirée de la pensée de Pierre Bourdieu. Un champ de tensions entre concepts par définition inconciliables : reconnaissance déclarative ou constitutive, droit dur ou droit mou, légalité ou effectivité, … Un champ de luttes entre acteurs (États, peuples, entreprises, individus, …) qui tendent à imposer leurs conceptions du juste ou à faire prévaloir leurs intérêts. Sont dans cette perspective envisagées diverses problématiques contemporaines : droits des femmes, des migrations ou du dérèglement climatique, crimes internationaux (génocide, terrorisme, écocide, … ), justifications des guerres, des exécutions judiciaires ou de la torture. Le droit international est ainsi étudié à la fois dans sa dimension technique, faites de débats juridiques pointus portant sur son interprétation, et dans sa dimension plus sociologique visant à le replacer dans son contexte politique.
Proceedings of the International Online Conference Organized by the Center for the Study of Second Temple Judaism of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, in Cooperation with Enoch Seminar, 20–22 October 2020
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This volume contains studies that explore the content and meaning of the Qumran manuscripts of the Aramaic Books of Enoch, the Book of Giants, and related literature. The essays shed new light on the lexicon, orthography and grammar of the Aramaic scrolls, as well as their relationship to schematic astronomy in ancient Mesopotamia. Contributors examine the origin of the angelic tradition of the Watchers, the textual and literary relationship of the Aramaic scrolls to the Book of the Watchers, and the culpability of humanity in the spread of evil on earth according to the myth of the fallen angels.