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Volume Editors: Ana Simões and Maria Paula Diogo
Why write a book about science, technology, and medicine in Lisbon? No one questions the value of similar studies of European capital cities such as Paris or London, but they are not reflective of the norm. Alongside its unique characteristics, Lisbon more closely represents the rule and deserves attention as such. This book offers the first urban history of science, technology and medicine in Lisbon, 1840-1940. It addresses the hybrid character of a European port city, scientific capital and imperial metropolis. It discusses the role of science, technology, and medicine in the making of Lisbon, framed by the analysis of invisibilities, urban connections, and techno-scientific imaginaries. The book is accompanied by a virtual interactive map.
The Laboratories of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)
The substantial collection of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier’s apparatus is not the only surviving collection of eighteenth-century chemical apparatus and instrumentation, but it is without question the most important. The present study provides the first scientific catalogue of Lavoisier’s surviving apparatus. This collection of instruments is remarkable not only for the quality of many of them but, above all, for the number of items that have survived (ca. 600 items). Given such a wealth and variety of instruments, this study also offers the first comprehensive attempt to reconstruct the cultural and social context of Lavoisier’s experimental activities.
Tradition, Teaching, and Trials at Leiden University, 1575-1639
Author: Evan R. Ragland
How did medical students become Galenic physicians in the early modern era? Making Physicians guides the reader through the ancient sources, textbooks, lecture halls, gardens, dissecting rooms, and patient bedsides in the early decades of an important medical school. Standard pedagogy combined book learning and hands-on experience. Professors and students embraced Galen’s models for integrating reason and experience, and cultivated humanist scholarship and argumentation, which shaped their study of chymistry, medical botany, and clinical practice at patients' bedsides, in private homes and in the city hospital. Following Galen’s emphasis on finding and treating the sick parts, professors correlated symptoms and the evidence from post-mortems to produce new pathological knowledge.
Healing Goddesses and the Legitimization of Professional asûs in the Mesopotamian Medical Marketplace
This volume exposes one of the world’s oldest medical marketplaces and the emergence of medical professionalization within it. Through an unprecedented analysis of the Mesopotamian healing goddesses as well as asûs, a diverse group of “healers”, Irene Sibbing-Plantholt demonstrates that from the Middle Babylonian period onwards, the goddess Gula was employed as a divine legitimization model for scholarly, professional asûs. With this work, Sibbing-Plantholt provides a unique insight in processes of medical competition and legitimization in ancient Mesopotamia, which speak to similar processes in other societies.
Author: John G. Fitch
On Simples, a medicinal text of the first century A.D., is attributed in the manuscripts to the famous Dioscorides. In a remarkable piece of detective work, Professor Fitch establishes that its alphabetical sequences of medications, ignored by earlier scholars, are conclusive proof that the attribution cannot be correct. He also shows that these sequences provide evidence about the content of earlier, now lost, works, including perhaps the Rhizotomikon of Crateus. This is the first English translation of On Simples. With its exhaustive concordances and indices, it will make the work accessible to readers interested in ancient medicine, and will facilitate future research.
The medical compendium entitled Zād al-musāfir wa-qūt al-ḥāḍir (Provisions for the Traveller and Nourishment for the Sedentary) and compiled by Ibn al-Jazzār from Qayrawān in the tenth century is one of the most influential handbooks in the history of western medicine. In the eleventh century, Constantine the African translated it into Latin; this translation was the basis for several commentaries compiled from the twelfth century on. The text was also translated into Byzantine Greek and three times into medieval Hebrew. The present volume includes a new critical edition of the Arabic text of books I and II, along with an annotated English translation, as well as critical editions of Constantine’s Viaticum and the Hebrew versions by Ibn Tibbon, Abraham ben Isaac, and Do’eg ha-Edomi.
When smallpox inoculation entered western medical practice in 1721 it aroused considerable controversy. A broad-based cohort of enlightened Germans such as publishers, poets, pastors and elite women attempted to dispel the doubts and encourage the innovative procedure. Yet many parents remained fearful, and the contagiousness of inoculation also necessitated a new approach. National pride in the past defeat of bubonic plague aroused optimism that smallpox could be banished using a similar strategy. The arrival in 1800 of Jenner’s vaccine ended the debates by offering yet another promising new approach.
Battling Smallpox before Vaccination explores the social and medical impacts of inoculation. It offers belated recognition for the valiant attempts of the many protagonists battling against the so-called ‘murdering angel’ before Edward Jenner’s discovery of vaccination. It provides a comprehensive description and penetrating analysis of the understanding and perception of smallpox, the propagation of pro-inoculation information, varied reactions to inoculation, and debates over the idealistic goal of eradicating smallpox.