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Brusil Miranda METOU, Le contrôle international des dérogations aux droits de l'homme and Eduardo SILVA ROMERO, Legal Fictions in the Language of International Arbitration.

Résumé: Le contrôle international des dérogations aux droits de l’homme:
La protection des droits de l’homme est une exigence de la société internationale contemporaine, et sa dérogation, une nécessité de survie de l’État, face à un danger public exceptionnel. Le contrôle international est la limite incontournable, pour éviter les abus. Il se décline en un ensemble de mesures, normatives et institutionnelles, prévues par les conventions internationales de protection des droits de l’homme. D’emblée, certains droits en raison de leur fondamentalité, sont indérogeables et la dérogation en elle-même est entourée de conditions strictes. Le contrôle est opéré par les organes internationaux, qui veillent à la proportionnalité et la régularité des mesures de dérogation. Ce contrôle vise également le respect par les Etats de leurs obligations internationales en matière des droits de l'homme. A l’issue, soit les mesures prises par l’État sont considérées comme justifiées, soit sa responsabilité est engagée. Malgré ses insuffisances, le contrôle est sans conteste, le défi permanent de l’effectivité de la protection internationale des droits de l’homme.

Summary of the Course “Legal Fictions in the Language of International Arbitration” by Eduardo Silva Romero:
The language of international arbitration is rarely analyzed through the prism of the notion of “legal fiction”. Legal fictions, however, are very often used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration. As a result, the goal of this Course is to shed new light on international arbitration by exploring it through the notion of legal fiction. Its main conclusions are these:
First, legal fictions are used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration to bolster it in its longstanding fight for survival. Arbitration, after all, has been and still is a fragile institution. In other words, legal fictions in the language of international arbitration have become efficient tools to counter the attacks sometimes directed against the institution of arbitration from both the outside (such as by public authorities) and from within (such as by the so-called “users” of arbitration). The legal fictions of “autonomy of the international arbitration agreement” and the “principle of Kompetenz-Kompetenz” are good illustrations of this phenomenon.
Second, some legal fictions are aimed at providing international arbitration with a necessary foundational theory. A foundational theory underlying international arbitration is necessary to ensure and enhance its legitimacy as a means for resolving international disputes. The theories of the “arbitral legal order”, the “fundamental right to arbitrate,” and the “assimilation of arbitrators and judges,” together with their logical corollaries, are very interesting examples of this category of legal fictions in the language of international arbitration.
Third, other legal fictions are specific legal rules aimed at ensuring the existence, autonomy, and validity of international arbitration. French arbitration law encompasses several legal fictions of this kind. The “autonomy of the international arbitration agreement,” the “principle of Kompetenz-Kompetenz,” the “principle of validity of the international arbitration agreement,” and the theory of the “extension of the international arbitration agreement to non-signatories” are important manifestations of this kind of legal fiction.
Lastly, the legal fiction as an intellectual tool is from time to time abused in the language of international arbitration. Some misunderstandings surrounding the “autonomy of the arbitration agreement” as well as some interpretations of investment treaties by investment arbitral tribunals demonstrate this point well.
Be all that as it may, the notion of legal fiction as used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration allows us to better understand, from a theoretical perspective, the nature of the Rule of Law.
Pieter Jean KUIJPER, Delegation and International Organizations; As Exemplified by the United Nations and the European Union
Based on a comparative approach, this course analyzes the diverging development of the delegation of powers, in particular legislative or regulatory powers, in the UN and the EU. It is based largely on the primary sources, documents and decisions of the organs of these organizations, including the relevant judicial decisions. After a brief discussion of some basic notions involved in delegation of powers, it makes a basic distinction between delegation of a constitutional nature and delegation of an administrative law nature. It continues with a preliminary chapter on delegation of powers in a limited number of national legal systems, as it is likely that these may have had some influence on delegation within international organizations, when these were first confronted with the problem of delegation. These national systems are characterized by a strong resistance against the delegation of truly legislative powers, but at the same time by the growing and unavoidable need for delegation in specialized domains of the modern administrative state, where certainly the legislature, but in many areas also the executive, lack the necessary knowledge.

Stephen C. McCAFFREY, The Evolution of the Law of International Watercourses.
Masahiko ASADA, International Law of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament
This course investigates the relationships between international criminal law and other branches of international law. It begins by examining four issues of general international law: the principal sources of international law, jurisdiction and immunities, State responsibility, and use of force. It then explores internationalhumanitarian law, focusing on definitions of war crimes and difficulties in linking IHL and ICL. Next, it examines refugee law, paying particular attention to the exclusion of war criminals from refugee protection and to international crimes that may be related to the rights and treatment of refugees. The final chapter explores the relationship between ICL and human rights law, examining the position of human rights within the Rome Statute of the ICC, as well as the human rights aspects of genocide, crimes against humanity, various procedural rights relating to fair international trials and the contribution of human rights fact-finding mechanisms.
Author: Dire Tladi
This study assesses the rules of international law relevant to the use of force against non-State actors. The rules of international law on the use of force are the lynchpin of the project of international law for a more secure and peaceful world. Yet, as important as they are, the rules of international law on the use of force are also highly contentious. With the shift in the nature of conflicts from inter-State wars to conflicts involving non-State actors, and with the growth in the threat of global terrorism, the focus of the law on the use of force has shifted to the use of force against non-State actors. To assess the permissibility of the use of force against non-State actors, this study will focus on two grounds that have been advanced as bases for the extraterritorial use of force against non-State actors: the right of a State to act in self-defence and intervention by invitation. While there are other grounds that have been advanced for the extraterritorial use of force in international law, it is only in respect of these two grounds that the role of non-State actors has a significant influence on the legality or not of the use of force.
Author: Robert Kolb
Cet ouvrage radiographie le corps du droit international public sous l’angle d’une division courante dans tout ordre juridique, à savoir le «droit privé» et le «droit public». Le premier vise à satisfaire les intérêts des sujets de droit pris individuellement, alors que le second cherche à protéger les intérêts d’une collectivité de sujets (en droit interne l’Etat, en droit international des collectivités à géométrie variable). Des illustrations de la gravitation de ces deux forces sont données dans les grandes matières structurantes du droit international: les sources, les rapports de système, les personnes, la responsabilité, le règlement des différends, le jus ad bellum et le jus in bello, ainsi que les espaces communs. En suivant ce fil d’analyse inédit, une série d’équilibres et de déséquilibres formant le code génétique intime du droit international sont mis à jour.
The Growth, Challenges and Future Prospects for Investment Dispute Settlement, by M. KINNEAR, Vice president of the World Bank Group.

“Mutual Trust”: A Suitable Foundation for Private International Law in Regional Integration Communities and Beyond?, by M. WELLER, Professor, Universität Bonn.
“Mutual trust” has become the central justification of the EU to drive its private international law forward – the reason why this Course undertakes to explore the theoretical potential of a trust perspective on private international law. In a first step, the opaque term of trust is deconstructed in an interdisciplinary analysis. The results are connected with fundamentals of private international law. The central finding is that private international law builds on the dichotomy of trust and control: how far should foreign judgments, foreign law and other foreign judicial acts be integrated – “trusted” – within the domestic administration of justice? This question must be answered by each and every legislator and each and every court, in particular by those that strive for economic and complementing judicial integration. Recurring tools of trust management can be identified. How do regional integration communities use and fine-tune these tools for their private international law and what are potential explanations from their history, their economics and their legal cultures? Four communities, selected from different parts of the world, are presented under this perspective, ordered in a series towards growing intensities of mutual trust: the ASEAN, the CEMAC, the MERCOSUR, and the EU. The Course comes to the conclusion that trust is, must, and can be managed and dosed according to the respective conditions and contexts, but no matter where we are: to trust or not to trust – that is the question of private international law, for regional integration communities and beyond.
We are currently living in a new normal. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to millions of deaths and is changing how we live, work, socialise and move through the world. But Covid-19 is one of many epidemics to have shaped human life throughout history, causing untold suffering and death and changing how we live. Their effects are seldom limited to one country or region, and how societies prevent, manage and recover from epidemics is inevitably influenced by international law. Epidemics are regulated not only by international health law but also by international human rights law, international environmental law, international trade and investment law, international transport law, international law of peace and security and international humanitarian law. Despite this, they have received limited attention in mainstream international legal scholarship. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of epidemics and international law from the perspective of general international law. Featuring thirty-one essays by researchers from around the world and from various areas of expertise, it demonstrates how epidemics shape – and are shaped by – international legal norms across varying domains of international law.

This volume is the product of collaborative work conducted between August 2020 and April 2021 as part of the Centre for Studies and Research on Epidemics and International Law.
Author: R. Wolfrum
Solidarity and community interest may appear to be purely abstract notions. But in fact they may form the basis of a more flexible approach to international lawmaking than traditional formulas of legally binding commitments. Through an empirical analysis of existing and emerging public international law, this book traces these concepts in existing regimes and investigates the impact they have had and will continue to have on the progressive development of specific international regimes, particularly those serving the protection of the environment and of human rights. It discusses how through these two regimes these concepts have changed the international normative order and explores the challenges such changes have created for implementation and enforcement. One such challenge is the lack of an adequate dispute settlement regime, and the book closes with some practical suggestions for an appropriate mechanism.
La protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux en droit international public et en droit international privé, par José Angelo Estrella-Faria.
La protection des biens culturels religieux comporte généralement trois dimensions : la conservation et la préservation physique des biens ; les mesures visant à garantir l’accès aux biens culturels et à garder leur fonction cultuelle ; et finalement leur rattachement territorial. Le droit international des conflits armés et le droit pénal international, ainsi que le droit du patrimoine culturel universel et les droits humains, offrent des niveaux variables de protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux par des mesures préventives et répressives, auxquelles s’ajoutent des normes de droit privé régissant les conditions de la circulation de ces biens. Le cours aborde certains aspects du traitement juridique des biens culturels dans ces différents domaines du droit ayant des implications particulières pour les biens culturels d’intérêt religieux, tant au niveau international que national, et la manière dont les domaines pertinents du droit prennent en considération les règles et besoins propres des communautés religieuses.