Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 424 items for :

  • History of Linguistics & Philosophy of Language x
  • Upcoming Publications x
  • Just Published x
Clear All
Author: Arie Verhagen
In these lectures, Arie Verhagen presents a version of cognitive linguistics that adheres to both the generalization and cognitive commitments that characterized the field from the start, and a biological commitment: understanding language as adaptive behavior of (human) organisms in the niche(s) that they inhabit. Drawing on the model of biological explanation (“Tinbergen’s four why’s”), Verhagen shows how proximate (individual level) and ultimate (population level) explanations apply to several features of language, shedding new light on basic notions like conventionality and entrenchment, norms/rules and habits, etc., and their causal connections. Topics include the relation between language, culture, and thinking, the role of language in social cognition and narrative, the evolution of sound structure and grammar, semantic change, and more.
Richard Kilvington was one of the most talented Oxford Calculators. His influence on late medieval philosophy and theology remains unquestionable. He made a name for himself with his logical treatise Sophismata, which was soon followed by a series of three commentaries on Aristotle’s works and a commentary on Peter Lombard’s Sentences. Richard Kilvington on the Capacity of Created Being, Infinity, and Being Simultaneously in Rome and Paris by Monika Michałowska presents a critical edition of question 3 from Kilvington’s Quaestiones super libros Sententiarum, complete with an introduction to the edition and a guide to Kilvington’s theological concepts. Kilvington’s theological question commentary enjoyed considerable popularity and became a source of continuous inspiration for Oxonian and Parisian masters.
Die Beiträge des Bandes verstehen „Krise“ als einen zentralen Bestandteil kultureller und gesellschaftlicher Institutionen – und gleichermaßen als Ursprung und Effekt von Erzählungen: Einerseits müssen Krisenphänomene narrativ hergestellt, medien-, gattungs- und disziplinspezifisch in Szene gesetzt werden, andererseits dient die Kulturtechnik des Erzählens – nicht nur im engeren Sinne einer talking cure – der Überwindung von und dem Lernen aus Krisen. Dabei stellen Krisen in Erzählprozessen als Ereignis meist den Zeitpunkt unmittelbar vor einem Wendepunkt dar: Krisen erfordern Entscheidungen.
Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation
In Learning the Language of Scripture, Mark Randall James offers a new account of theological interpretation as a sapiential practice of learning the language of Scripture, drawing on recently discovered Homilies on the Psalms by the influential early theologian Origen of Alexandria (2nd-3rd c. C.E). Widely regarded as one of the most arbitrary interpreters, James shows that Origen’s appearance of arbitrariness is a result of the modern tendency to neglect the role of wisdom in scriptural interpretation. James demonstrates that Origen offers a compelling model of a Christian pragmatism in which learning and correcting linguistic practice is a site of the transformative pedagogy of the divine Logos.
The Use of Common Sense Reasoning in Conversation
In Enthymemes and Topoi in Dialogue, Ellen Breitholtz presents a novel and precise account of reasoning from an interactional perspective. The account draws on the concepts of enthymemes and topoi, originating in Aristotelian rhetoric and dialectic, and integrates these in a formal dialogue semantic account using TTR, a type theory with records.
Argumentation analysis and formal approaches to reasoning often focus the logical validity of arguments on inferences made in discourse from a god’s-eye perspective. In contrast, Breitholtz’s account emphasises the individual perspectives of interlocutors and the function and acceptability of their reasoning in context. This provides an analysis of interactions where interlocutors have access to different topoi and therefore make different inferences.
These lectures deal with the role of cognitive modelling in language-based meaning construction. To make meaning people use a small set of principles which they apply to different types of conceptual characterizations. This yields predictable meaning effects, which, when stably associated with specific grammatical patterns, result in constructions or fixed form-meaning parings. This means that constructional meaning can be described on the basis of the same principles that people use to make inferences. This way of looking at pragmatics and grammar through cognition allows us to relate a broad range of pragmatic and grammatical phenomena, among them argument-structure characterizations, implicational, illocutionary, and discourse structure, and such figures of speech as metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, and irony.
Ausgangspunkt des Bands Ästhetik und Politik der Zerstreuung ist die Annahme, dass die produktive Instanz von Kultur ein anonymer Prozess diskursiver Zerstreuung und Zerstreutheit ist, dem als entgegengesetzte Operationen Formen von Sammlung und Konzentration entgegenwirken. Während letztere die Funktionen der Hierarchisierung, Totalisierung und Identifi zierung übernehmen, also Ordnung stiften in Bereichen, die eigentlich vom Prinzip der Dispersion gekennzeichnet sind, interessieren sich die Beiträge des vorliegenden Bands für ebenjene Momente kultureller Produktion, in denen das Prinzip der Zerstreuung entfesselt wird, Schlupflöcher findet, Grenzen überwindet und Fluchtlinien eröffnet. Angeregt von Überlegungen der Dortmunder Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaftlerin Ute Gerhard widmen sie sich in exemplarischen Studien den Praktiken, Räumen, Diskursen und Subjektivitäten der Zerstreuung. Auf diese Weise tragen sie dazu bei, ihre spezifische Ästhetik und Politik genauer zu konturieren.
Author: Alexander Vovin
This is the revised, updated and enlarged second edition of the first detailed descriptive grammar in English (indeed, in any language other than Japanese and more complete than even any grammar in Japanese) dedicated to the Western Old Japanese, which was spoken in the Kansai region of Japan during the seventh and eighth centuries. The grammar is divided into two volumes, with the first volume dealing with sources, script, phonology, lexicon, nominals and adjectives. The second volume focuses on verbs, adverbs, particles, conjunctions and interjections. In addition to descriptive data, the grammar also includes comparisons between Western Old Japanese and Eastern Old Japanese and Ryukyuan, occasionally with a critical analysis of various external parallels.
Author: Ariel Cohen
Some sentences contain no overt quantifier, yet are interpreted quantificationally, e.g., Plumbers are available (entailing that some plumbers are available), or Plumbers are intelligent (whose entailment is less clear, but seems to be saying that a large number of plumbers are intelligent). Where does the quantifier come from? In this book, Ariel Cohen makes the novel proposal that the quantifier is not simply an empty category, but is generated by reinterpretations mechanisms, which are governed by well specified principles. He demonstrates how the puzzling and sometimes mysterious properties of such sentences can be naturally derived from the reinterpretation mechanisms that generate them. The resulting picture has substantial implications that language contains hidden elements, underlying its surface structure.