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Volume Editors: and
The title concept ‘in-between’ (metaxu) refers to identity that remains in perpetual disjunction, dispersion and crisis. This book proves that ‘in-between’ is not an empty space, but a productive mode of creating new qualities, experiences, ideas and representations. The authors of individual chapters interpret selected aspects of metaxu in relevant to contemporary cultural communication areas, i.e. linguistic and more broadly semiotic, and make contemporary discourses the object of exploration. Most of the analyses are based on the Polish-language linguistic context; however, they refer to a universal perspective of culture and communication.
The aim of this double-blind peer-reviewed series is to focus upon the relationship between semantic and pragmatic theories for a variety of natural language constructions. The boundary between semantics and pragmatics can be drawn in many various ways; the relative benefits of each have given rise to a vivid theoretical dispute in the literature in the last three decades. As a side effect, this variety has produced a certain degree of confusion and absence of purpose in the extant publications on the topic. This series provides a forum where the confusion within the existing literature can be removed and the issues raised by different positions can be discussed with a renewed sense of purpose. The editors intend the contributions to this series to take further steps towards clarity and cautious consensus.
The electronic version of the Cahiers Chronos series.

Every article in Cahiers Chronos is reviewed by two peer-reviewers using the double-blind system.

The study of temporal reference represents a wide subject area with various and complex issues. The Cahiers Chronos series proposes collected studies representative of the diversity of approaches in the field of temporal semantics.
The reader will find here, for example, studies on the temporality of the verb in general, particular verb tenses, aspect and actionality, temporal subordination, or the interaction between tense and temporal complementation.
The diversity of theoretical approaches (temporal logic, Vendler’s ontology, pragmatics, relevance theory, Guillaume’s model, etc.) and the survey of languages (among which, French, English, German, Spanish and many others) generate interesting and sometimes unexpected points of view on a subject area that nowadays captivates many linguists and scholars.

L'étude de la référence temporelle constitue un domaine très vaste où se dégagent des problématiques diverses et complexes. La collection Cahiers Chronos propose des recueils d'articles - et à l'avenir également des monographies - représentatifs de la diversité des approches dans le domaine de la sémantique temporelle. Le lecteur y trouvera, entre autres, des études consacrées à la temporalité du verbe en général, à des temps verbaux particuliers (par exemple, le passé simple français ou le present perfect anglais), à la problématique de l'aspect et du mode d'action, aux subordonnées temporelles ou à l'interaction entre le temps du verbe et les compléments de temps. La diversité des approches théoriques (logique temporelle reichenbachienne, ontologie de Vendler, repérages énonciatifs de Culioli, modèle guillaumien, grammaire fonctionnelle de Dik, pragmasémantique de Kleiber, théorie de la pertinence, etc.) permet de jeter des regards intéressants et parfois inattendus sur un domaine qui passionne actuellement beaucoup de linguistes. La collection ne s'intéresse pas seulement à la linguistique française; on y trouve aussi des études consacrées à l'anglais, l'allemand, les langues slaves ou la linguistique comparée.
El interés que han suscitado y suscitan las diferentes variedades del español peninsular e hispanoamericanas lo demuestra la abundante bibliografía en donde han sido descritas y catalogadas desde principios del siglo XX hasta el momento actual. Sin embargo, hoy en día, la sociolingüística y la pragmática deben sumarse a la dialectología para considerar nuevas perspectivas de estudio en torno a un hecho lingüístico: así, las variables como el sexo, el nivel de estudios, la edad, así como las nociones de prestigio y prestigio encubierto, deben ser elementos claves a la hora describir los distintos tipos de interacciones y actos lingüísticos.

Al mismo tiempo, las variedades del español no sólo deben tratarse desde el ámbito lingüístico y literario, sino que su alcance puede ser abordado desde otras disciplinas; se propone, pues, en este volumen un novedoso y completo análisis del español y su diversidad, que incluyen el prisma de la lingüística, sociolingüística y pragmática; las lenguas en contacto; la traducción e interpretación y la didáctica de nuestra lengua como idioma extranjero.

El estudio es diverso y variado, como el propio español, pero muestra una relación constante entre las diferentes disciplinas presentadas.
Volume Editors: and
Our sense of agency and ability to distinguish between intentional and accidental actions are fundamental for social interaction. They allow us to plan and perform joint actions and assign responsibility for our own actions and those of others. Research on the nature of agency and intentions has been very fruitful over the last few decades in philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. However, trully new discoveries could be made only when we engage in interdisciplinary discussions. This volume is the result of such discussions.
In this volume, long-standing assumptions about the formal changes involved in grammaticalization are evaluated in the light of the striking diversity of human languages. To this end, the traditional notions of morphological coalescence, syntactic fixation and phonological erosion are reassessed with regard to their relationship with the diachronic changes affecting the function of the construction and with larger-scale typological changes that affect the language as a whole (especially, shifts in morphological type and word-order patterns). The author reaches the conclusion that suprasegmental phonological erosion and syntactic fixation (redefined in a template-based framework) are direct consequences of functional change and are therefore significant indicators of grammaticalization, whereas coalescence and segmental erosion are independently motivated by psycholinguistic, rather than strictly grammatical factors.
Meaning change in grammaticalization has been variously described in terms of decreasing semantic weight and increasing generality, abstraction, (inter)subjectivity or discourse orientation. The author shows that all these trends are subsumed by the notion of scope increase along a precise hierarchy of semantic and pragmatic layers of grammatical organization such as endorsed by Functional Discourse Grammar. The scope-increase hypothesis is immune from the exceptions and veritable counterexamples to all the aforementioned generalizations and has the decisive advantage of being more objectively measurable, given its direct bearing on actual linguistic structure. The extremely rare exceptions to this generalization are also addressed and found to always result from a type of change independent from grammaticalization – the merger of two separate speech acts.
A Synchronic, Diachronic, and Sociolinguistic Analysis
When I entered her shop, my friend turned to me and said: «Arà, che si dice?» (‘Hey there, how you doing?’). This was not a full-fledged sentence in Italian, as she had thrown a little Sicilian word in – arà. It was a greeting, of course, but also a way of expressing her surprise at seeing me there, and a way of prompting me to start our conversation. The fact she used Sicilian had a clear meaning too: the vernacular indicates a shared social identity.
In a nutshell, this book analyses the cases of Sicilian arà and mentri to understand the complexity of discourse markers: what functions they perform, how they evolve historically, and what their social meaning is in a bilingual speech community.