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Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) and Otto Neurath (1882-1945) had a decisive influence on the development of the scientific world view of logical empiricism. Their relationship was marked by mutual intellectual stimulation, close collaboration, and personal friendship, but also by controversies that were as heated as they were rarely fought out in public. Carnap and Neurath were, in the words of Olga Hahn-Neurath, "like-minded opponents". The essays in this volume deal with these key thinkers of logical empiricism from different perspectives, shedding light on the complex development of one of the most influential philosophical currents of the twentieth century in the midst of dark times.
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This book represents the first ever systematic philosophical study of Marsilio Ficino’s Commentary on Plotinus’ ‘Enneads’ (first published in Florence, 1492), this work of Ficino being arguably as definitive for the Florentine thinker’s later work as the Platonic Theology was for his earlier. Publication of the present study uniquely illuminates the extent to which Plotinus had always been the crucial influence over Ficino’s revolutionary projects of introducing Platonic thought based on original Greek sources to western Europe, correcting certain features of late medieval and Renaissance Aristotelianism, and laying the foundations of a new Christian Platonism. The study can be read both as an independent introduction to Ficino’s later philosophy and as the complement to the first modern edition and translation of the Commentary on the 'Enneads' itself also by Stephen Gersh (I Tatti Renaissance Library, 2017-).
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Paracelsus (1493-1541) stands at a crossroads associated with the Renaissance and Reformation. His cosmological-meteorological writings exemplify the turning point that concluded the older worldview and opened fresh avenues. His nature philosophy is inseparable from his medicine. This volume encompasses Paracelsus’s writings on cosmology and meteorology in the German original with facing-page translations. The reliable source texts have been treated with methods of critical edition. The source text and translation are accompanied by commentary elucidating their obscurity through the context of his full corpus while placing them in the context of the best secondary literature from his time to the present.
Überlegungen zu Philosophie und (Forschungs-)Praxis
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Psychologie und Neurowissenschaft scheinen eine generelle Skepsis gegenüber dem freien Willen zu befördern: Sind unsere Entscheidungen nicht letztlich immer durch wissenschaftlich beschreibbare Faktoren festgelegt? In diesem Buch wird dagegen eine starke, libertarische Form von Willensfreiheit verteidigt: In vielen Situationen liegen offene Möglichkeiten vor uns, zwischen denen mit vernünftigen Gründen zu wählen ist. Diese grundsätzlich bestehende Freiheit kann unterminiert werden, etwa durch unbewusste Einflüsse oder sehr starke Antriebe wie Süchte oder Zwänge. Bei Urteilen darüber, ob und inwieweit das in konkreten Situationen der Fall ist, bleiben Spielräume für informierte Entscheidungen, die wiederum frei und verantwortlich getroffen werden müssen – im Alltag, aber auch etwa in Strafprozessen. Solche Urteile können durch wissenschaftliche Befunde gestützt, aber kaum erzwungen werden. Hier wirken die Perspektiven der diskursiven Vernunft und der empirischen Wissenschaften zusammen.
Living, Learning and Teaching with Radical Philosophy of Education
Making Sense of the World: Living, Learning and Teaching with Radical Philosophy of Education proposes that human knowledge arises from an integrated physical and metaphysical experience involving the continuing social acts of personal and community cultures and languages. It seeks to provide a means of thinking about and acting with the philosophical nature of human existence, so that the daily activities and achievements of all are respected and taken into account. Given the dominance of neoliberal politics and economics in many countries, it is unusual to find the work of educators and practitioners being framed generally by an explicit philosophy of knowledge.
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What is the relationship between the concept of person and the concept of intentionality? Is the phenomenological notion of essence somehow related to that of medieval philosophies? What kind of entity is the person understood in her irreducible singularity? These are some of the questions that the chapters in this book seek to address and develop by focusing on the thought of Aquinas, Scotus and Edith Stein.
Indeed, the editors of the book are led by the conviction that a fruitful dialogue between medieval philosophy and 20th century phenomenology may prove useful in addressing questions and problems that are still relevant in contemporary debates. The book is divided into three sections, devoted respectively to medieval philosophy, phenomenology and some of the possible systematic and historical intersections between them.
Contributors are Sarah Borden Sharkey, Antonio Calcagno, Therese Cory, Daniele De Santis, Andrew LaZella, Dominik Perler, Giorgio Pini, Francesco Valerio Tommasi, Anna Tropia, and Ingrid Vendrell Ferran.
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Dieses Buch untersucht den Wert von Wissen aus zweiter Hand aus epistemischer Sicht. Die Autorin kommt zu dem Schluss, dass Wissen aus zweiter Hand unter sonst gleichen Umständen epistemisch weniger wertvoll ist als Wissen aus erster Hand. Die Analyse der Funktion beider Begriffe zeigt, dass es fundamentale strukturelle Unterschiede zwischen Wissen aus erster Hand und Wissen aus zweiter Hand gibt, die dazu führen, dass Wissen aus zweiter Hand in das Wissensnetz der Besitzerin schlechter integriert wird. Wissen aus zweiter Hand muss von einem epistemischen Standort zum anderen transportiert werden. Hierbei geht die domänenspezifische Evidenz verloren. Die Besitzerin von Wissen aus zweiter Hand ist daher bezüglich der Einbettung ihres Wissens auf die Erstbesitzerin angewiesen. Sie befindet sich in einer epistemischen Abhängigkeit, die den Wert ihres Wissens mindert. Diese Unterscheidung kann vielfältige Phänomene in der Erkenntnistheorie und der Epistemologie testimonialen Wissens erklären.