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This is the first edited collection entirely dedicated to non-evidentialist epistemology or non-evidentialism—the controversial view that evidence is not required in order for doxastic attitudes to enjoy a positive epistemic status. Belief or acceptance can be epistemically justified, warranted, or rational without evidence. The volume is divided into three section: the first focuses on hinge epistemology, the second offers a critical reflection about evidentialist and non-evidentialist epistemologies, and the third explores extensions of non-evidentialism to the fields of social psychology, psychiatry, and mathematics.
Selbstbewusstsein, Leiblichkeit und Persistenz
Author: Markus Herrmann
Manche meinen, unsere Existenz hänge an Erinnerung und Persönlichkeit. Andere glauben, wir seien unsere Biologie. Tatsächlich sind wir körperliches Selbstbewusstsein, das durch all das unbestimmt ist. Wir haben nicht Bewusstsein, wie wir Hände oder eine Leber besitzen. Denn unsere Fähigkeit, über uns selbst zu reden, kommt zu einem gewissen Preis: Sie legt uns darauf fest, dass wir Selbstbewusstsein sind und nicht nur solches haben. Aber dieses Bewusstsein ist unbestimmt von all dem, was uns wichtig ist. Unsere Existenz besteht nicht in unserer Erinnerung oder Persönlichkeit. Doch über uns selbst zu sprechen, legt uns auf noch mehr fest: Wir können keine reinen Denker sein. Notwendig befinden wir uns körperlich in Raum und Zeit. Diese Körperlichkeit können wir aber nicht vollständig verstehen, wenn wir sie ausschließlich anhand empirischer Wissenschaft erklären wollen.
Contributions from the Second International Conference Graz 1977 & 2017. In memory of Rudolf Haller
Volume Editors: Mauro Antonelli and Thomas Binder
This volume, originating from the centennial Second International Conference Graz 1977–2017 on Franz Brentano’s philosophy, collects eighteen essays written by nineteen distinguished specialists covering the main areas of Brentano’s philosophy: his epistemology, ontology, ethics, and logic, and his contributions to psychology and philosophy of mind. Its goal is to explore the significance and impact of Brentano’s thought, to promote a deepening of the ongoing renaissance of interest in Brentano, and to advance the project of understanding Brentano’s actual philosophical positions and correcting entrenched misunderstandings.
Author: Andrew Oberg
The question of the self, of what the self is (or even if there is a self), has been one that has grown alongside humanity – has haunted humanity – throughout our history. Blurred: Selves Made and Selves Making guides the reader down these dark corridors, shining light on the specters of theories past and unveiling a new self-view to hover afresh, beckoning to roadways beyond.

In this remarkably interdisciplinary study, philosophy of mind joins with contemporary neuroscience and cutting-edge psychology to lay bare the how of identity formation, judgment, and behavior generation. Drawing on thinkers from both the Continental and Analytic traditions, consciousness is explored and a uniquely realist self-concept presented that, if adopted, offers a life lived otherwise.
Buddhist Philosophy of Consciousness brings Buddhist voices to the study of consciousness. This book explores a variety of different Buddhist approaches to consciousness that developed out of the Buddhist theory of non-self. Topics taken up in these investigations include: how we are able to cognize our own cognitions; whether all conscious states involve conceptualization; whether distinct forms of cognition can operate simultaneously in a single mental stream; whether non-existent entities can serve as intentional objects; and does consciousness have an intrinsic nature, or can it only be characterized functionally? These questions have all featured in recent debates in consciousness studies. The answers that Buddhist philosophers developed to such questions are worth examining just because they may represent novel approaches to questions about consciousness.
Concept and Judgment in Brentano's Logic Lectures is concerned with a crucial aspect of Brentano's philosophy as it was developed in his logic lectures from c. 1870 to c. 1885. The first part of the volume is an analysis of his theory of concept and judgment. The second part consists of materials, including a German edition and English translation of notes that a student took from a lecture course that Brentano gave. A short book by this student on Brentano is also translated in the materials.

The access to Brentano's philosophy is enhanced by this volume not only with regard to his logic as a theory of deductive inference, but also to his descriptive psychology, metaphysics, and philosophy of language.
Berkeleys Immaterialismus wird in der Geschichte der Philosophie gerne als Beispiel für ein besonders abstruses, kontraintuitives metaphysisches System angesehen. Das Buch zeigt, dass das Gegenteil zutreffend ist: Gerade Berkeley entwickelt protophänomenologische Ideen, die weit in das zwanzigste Jahrhundert vorausweisen.
In Abweichung zu den dominanten Auslegungen von Berkeleys Schriften schlägt Hartmann einen Perspektivwechsel vor, um das Werk Berkeleys dezidiert metapherntheoretisch zu lesen und zu interpretieren. Auf diese Weise bringt Hartmann evident zur Darstellung, dass man dem Werk von Berkeley eine – bisher übersehene – epochale Bedeutung für die Philosophie und die Aufklärung zusprechen kann: Unter Zuhilfenahme der metaphorologischen Studien Hans Blumenbergs wird im Buch detailliert aufgezeigt, dass sich in Berkeleys Gesamtwerk ein ausgesprochen modernes, regelrecht ökologisches Mensch-Welt-Verhältnis auffinden lässt, welches weder bisher mit Berkeley noch mit der Epoche der Aufklärung in Verbindung gebracht wird.
Ein philosophischer Versuch zur Systematisierung der empirischen Erforschung des Geistes von Tieren
Author: Martin Böhnert
Wie wissen wir, ob Tiere denken können? In Erweiterung der bisherigen Debatte um Mensch-Tier-Verhältnisse analysiert dieser Band die Bedingungen und Kontexte der naturwissenschaftlichen Gewinnung unseres Wissens von Tieren.
Die aktuellen Diskussionen innerhalb der Tierphilosophie drehen sich um die drei zentralen Fragen, ob wir Tieren einen Geist zuschreiben können, worin der Unterschied zwischen Menschen und Tieren besteht und wie sich Menschen gegenüber Tieren verhalten sollen. Unser Wissen über Tiere ist meist von der empirischen Forschung übernommen. Die Methoden, Theorien und Kontexte der empirischen Forschung wurden bislang nicht zum Gegenstand gemacht. Diese Lücke will der Band mit dem zentralen Konzept der methodologischen Signaturen schließen, das den systematischen Vergleich von Forschungsansätzen anhand deren fundamentalen methodologischen, ontologischen und epistemologischen Vorannahmen erlaubt.
Reflections in Philosophy, Theology, and the Social Sciences
This book discusses major issues of the current AI debate from the perspectives of philosophy, theology, and the social sciences: Can AI have a consciousness? Is superintelligence possible and probable? How does AI change individual and social life? Can there be artificial persons? What influence does AI have on religious worldviews? In Western societies, we are surrounded by artificially intelligent systems. Most of these systems are embedded in online platforms. But embodiments of AI, be it by voice or by actual physical embodiment, give artificially intelligent systems another dimension in terms of their impact on how we perceive these systems, how they shape our communication with them and with fellow humans and how we live and work together. AI in any form gives a new twist to the big questions that humanity has concerned herself with for centuries: What is consciousness? How should we treat each other - what is right and what is wrong? How do our creations change the world we are living in? Which challenges do we have to face in the future?

This transdisciplinary project represents the most comprehensive study of imagination to date. The eclectic group of international scholars who comprise this volume propose bold and innovative theoretical frameworks for (re-) conceptualizing imagination in all of its divergent forms. Imagination and Art: Explorations in Contemporary Theory explores the complex nuances, paradoxes, and aporias related to the plethora of artistic mediums in which the human imagination manifests itself. As a fundamental attribute of our species, which other organisms also seem to possess with varying degrees of sophistication, imagination is the very fabric of what it means to be human into which everything is woven. This edited collection demonstrates that imagination is the resin that binds human civilization together for better or worse.