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Time holds an enduring fascination for humans. Time and Trace investigates the human experience and awareness of time and time’s impact on a wide range of cultural, psychological, and artistic phenomena, from reproductive politics and temporal logic to music and theater, from law to sustainability, from memory to the Vikings. The volume presents selected essays from the 15th triennial conference of the International Society for the Study of Time from the arts (literature, music, theater), history, law, philosophy, science (psychology, biology), and mathematics. Taken together, they pursue the trace of time into the past and future, tracing temporal processes and exploring the traces left by time in individual experience as well as culture and society.

Contributors are: Michael Crawford, Orit Hilewicz, Rosemary Huisman, John S. Kafka, Erica W. Magnus, Arkadiusz Misztal, Carlos Montemayor, Stephanie Nelson, Peter Øhrstrøm, Jo Alyson Parker, Thomas Ploug, Helen Sills, Lasse C. A. Sonne, Raji C. Steineck, and Frederick Turner.
Garden Design, 16th-19th century
The Haupt Collection, Technical University of Hannover

IDC presents an important collection of rare works in the field of garden history: a selection of 100 garden books from the Haupt Collection in the Library of the University of Hannover. The Haupt Collection is comprised of more than 1,500 books and thousands of engravings and drawings dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century that deal with architectural history and art history. The present selection by IDC will constitute an indispensible source for garden, art and architectural historians.

Karl Albrecht Haupt
Karl Albrecht Haupt (1852 - 1932), the former owner, was a professor of architecture at the University of Hannover. After having participated in the war between Germany and France in 1870 to 1871, Haupt studied architecture at the technical universities of Karlsruhe and Hannover. From 1880 on he worked as a free-lance architect. In 1879 he was appointed as instructor for German Renaissance studies at the Technical University of Hannover; from 1907 on he also lectured on Spanish and Portuguese architectural history and ancient Germanic architectural history. Haupt received his PhD. in philosophy in 1893. In 1920 he was appointed as a full honorary professor in German Renaissance studies by the Technical University of Hannover. In 1927 he received an honorary PhD. in appreciation of his merits as teacher, architect and collector of graphics in the field of architectural history. In 1927 he became an honorary member of the Sociedade dos Arquitectos Portugueses diplomados pelo governo.
During his professional career Haupt also served from 1903 to 1907 as the first president of the Bund Deutscher Architekten (BDA) (German Association of Architects). In 1922 he became honorary member of the BDA. From 1904 until 1929 he was president of the Hannoverscher Künstlerverein (Art Association of Hannover).

The Haupt Collection
In 1901 Haupt sold major parts of his collection to the Technical University of Hannover, among them about 1,500 books, thousands of engravings and an extensive collection of drawings by Haupt himself, which he used for his lectures. The collection was later complemented with new acquisitions. The books of the Haupt Collection are significant for their coverage of architectural history. There are also numerous titles that deal with interior design, aesthetics, art history, technology, and garden history. The architectural and art historical portions of the collection include such important works as Leon Battista Alberti´s Libri de Re aedificatoria decem (Paris, 1512), Andrea Palladio´s I quattro libri dell ´architettura di Andrea Palladio (Venice, 1570), and Karl Friedrich Schinkel´s Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe (Berlin, 1819-40). T he collection contains several of such works in various editions or languages. Thus Sebastiano Serlio´s Libro primo (-quinto) d´Architettura (Venice, 1566) is not only available in the original Italian version, but also in a German edition (Basel, 1609), and a Dutch edition (Amsterdam, 1616).
The Haupt Collection covers a broad range of facets of architectural and art history. Haupt also collected books about related issues such as the architecture of churches, theaters, monasteries, fortresses and other military buildings, or such issues as calligraphy and carpentry.

Garden Design
About 100 titles of the Haupt collection are of direct relevance to the study of garden history. They include such watershed works as Salomon de Caus´ Hortus Palatinus (1620), Antoine Joseph Dézaillier d´Argentville´s La theorie et la pratique du jardinage (1739), and Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeld´s Theorie der Gartenkunst (1779-85), as well as lesser known but, nevertheless, important works as Heinrich Hesse´s Neue Garten-Lust (1696) and Die Gartenkunst (1797) by J. F. Blotz (pseudonym of F.CH. Touchy). The garden titles included in the IDC microfiche project cover a broad range of subjects regarding the theory and practice of gardening, horticulture and garden design. Technological aspects are as well treated as garden ornaments, garden buildings, plant use, and the construction of green houses. For example, Johann Gottfried Grohmann´s Ideenmagazin für Liebhaber von Gärten (Leipzig, 1796-1802) offers insights into garden ornaments used for well-to-do gardens. The Dutch publication Het vermakelyk land-leven (Amsterdam, 1710-11) includes fascinating views of gardens of the same period in the Netherlands. Such a lesser known publication as Bernhard Christoph Faust´s Zur Sonne nach Mittag sollten alle Häuser der Menschen gerichtet sey (n.p., c. 1824) offers interesting views of the application of the English landscape garden to row houses. The two volumes of Theatri machinarum hydraulicarum by Jacob Leupold (Leipzig, 1724-25) elucidate how to construct water fountains and show, e. g., parts of the water technique used to run the fountains of the Marly garden. Last but not least, numerous titles deal with the most important seventeenth, eigteenth and nineteenth century gardens in Europe such as Stowe, Versailles, and Schwetzingen. These and the other titles included in the IDC project Garden Design, 16th - 19th Century, constitute a rich source for garden, art and architectural historians.

Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, University of Hannover
Italian Garden Design
17th and 18th century Italian books on garden design

Italian garden art of the Renaissance and Baroque periods played a pivotal role in the ensuing evolution of European garden design. The Villa Medici in Fiesole, the Villa d'Este in Tivoli, the Villa Lante in Bagnaia, and the Villa Mondragone and Villa Aldobrandini, both in Frascati, are just a few examples of this influence.
17th- and 18th-Century Italian Garden Books is the first IDC project to focus exclusively on garden design. The twenty-eight books presented in this collection were selected from the holdings of the Dumbarton Oaks Garden Library Rare Book Collection. They span the period from 1640 to 1817, and include such seminal works as Giovanni Battista Falda's Li Giardini di Roma (Rome 1680) and Dominicus Barrière's Villa Aldobrandina Tusculana sive varij illius hortorum et fontium prospectus (Rome 1647). One group of titles is devoted to descriptions of important individual gardens, for example Andrea Brigenti's description of the Villa Borghese (Rome 1716) and Francesco Maria Soldini's work on the Boboli garden (Florence 1789). Other works discuss elements central to Italian gardens, such as fountains and statuary: an example is Domenico Parasacchi's Raccolta delle principali fontane dell'inclitta città di Roma (Rome 1647). A third group comprises general treatises on the theory and practice of garden design, such as Vincenzo Marulli's L'arte di ordinare i giardini (Naples 1804) and Agostino Mandirola's Manuale de giardinieri diviso in tre libri (Venice 1684).
John Evelyn - an English Virtuoso

Books from the Dumbarton Oaks collection, Washington, D.C.
The Garden Library at Dumbarton Oaks owns a number of seminal works by John Evelyn (1620-1706), the English virtuoso and writer, who was a pivotal figure in seventeenth-century intellectual life in England. Evelyn left an immensely rich literary heritage, which is of great significance for scholars of various disciplines who are interested in, for example, the history of intellectual life, the history of architecture, or garden history. With this project, dozens of his publications are made accessible to a wider audience.

John Evelyn
John Evelyn, the son of Richard Evelyn, was born at Wotton House in Surrey. During his life, he pursued a broad range of interests, such as writing and garden design. Evelyn travelled widely, and, during the 1640s, he spent several years abroad, in Holland, Italy and France, and returned to England in 1652. Evelyn was one of the first members of the Royal Society, becoming its Secretary in 1672.

Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-trees
One of his first and most important publications was Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-trees, a treatise whose motivation was to maintain the supply of timber for the Royal Navy. It created great public interest and appeared in several revised editions in 1669, 1679, 1706 and 1729. Each edition contains the two appendices Pomona, or an appendix concerning fruit-trees, in relation to cider, and Kalendarium Hortense. Evelyn's Sylva was probably the most influential seventeenth-century book on forestry.

Evelyn's diaries
Evelyn's diaries, which he wrote over several decades, are of significant historical importance and provide insights into a momentous period in both English and garden history. In the 1650s, Evelyn wrote a comprehensive treatise on all aspects of gardening and garden design, his Elysium Britannicum. Or the Royal Gardens in Three Books. This work was never published in its entirety, although parts of it were published separately. Evelyn did, however, expand and revise it over a forty-year period. In 1993, the institute known as Studies in Landscape Architecture at Dumbarton Oaks held a symposium on John Evelyn's Elysium Britannicum.