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Common Concern of Humankind, Carbon Pricing, and Export Credit Support
Author: Zaker Ahmad
In General Principles for Business and Human Rights in International Law Ludovica Chiussi Curzi offers an overview of the relevance of general principles of law in the multifaceted discourse on business and human rights.

What are the implications of the state duty to protect human rights in good faith and to guarantee victims of corporate human rights violations access to justice? Can general principles of law, such as abuse of rights, due diligence, and estoppel provide a source of obligations for companies that is relevant to human rights protection? Has an autonomous principle on corporate liability developed in international law?

These are the questions at the core of this monograph, which seeks the answers in the normative foundations of public international law.
Authors: Crina Baltag and Ylli Dautaj
In Investors, States, and Arbitrators in the Crosshairs of International Investment Law and Environmental Protection, Dr Crina Baltag and Ylli Dautaj look at the investor-State dispute settlement system and inquire whether this is the most suitable transnational venue for resolving investment disputes that have an environmental component. This culminates essentially in whether arbitration is a legitimate forum and whether privately appointed arbitrators appropriately can resolve environmental-related disputes. These disputes are bound to increase in frequency because host-States are also partaking in global efforts to respond to environmental challenges.
Evolving Dynamics in International and European Law
Legal Sources in Business and Human Rights engages with some evolving trends that are currently affecting the international and EU law sources in the field of Business and Human Rights. Three main dynamics are detected and explored: the emergence of international legal obligations that are also binding on corporations (Part I); the growing participation of corporations in traditional international standard-setting and law-making processes and, in parallel, the emergence of atypical and heterogeneous law-making processes (Part II); the formal or substantive hardening of originally soft normative standards, through a multi-layered and multi-player law-making process (Part III). Interestingly, these trends concur to mitigate States’ reluctance to accept binding rules in this field, and to strengthen the effectiveness of soft international regulation.
Towards Good Governance in Development Finance
Multilateral development banks and other development agencies have adopted environmental and social safeguard policies setting due diligence standards for the provision of project finance. Such policies are evolving in terms of the activities covered and in their normative requirements. Recent iterations incorporate human rights requirements, recognising the imperative of adopting human rights-based approaches to development. Each institution has also established independent accountability mechanisms (IAM), variously functioning to ensure compliance with the applicable safeguards, to advise management regarding the application of the obligations involved, and to facilitate communication with affected communities and individuals with a view to resolving project-related disputes. IAMs are central to the implementation, interpretation, and ongoing elaboration of safeguard policies, and thus to the environmental and social good governance so essential for sustainable development.

This edited volume presents a series of in-depth examinations by leading experts from banking institutions, academia and civil society, of key aspects of the rapidly evolving practice of IAMs, and of the implications of such practice for environmental and social governance.
The Selection and Removal of Arbitrators in Investor-State Dispute Settlement examines two essential features in investor-state dispute resolution: how arbitrators are selected and removed. Both topics have received increasing scrutiny and criticism, that have in turn generated calls for reforms. In its first part, Professor Chiara Giorgetti, an expert in international arbitration, explains the selection of arbitrators procedurally and comparatively under the most-often used arbitration rules. She then reviews critically arbitrators’ necessary and desirable qualities, and addresses some important and related policy issues, such as diversity and repeat appointments. In her work, she also includes an assessment of the calls to review how arbitrators are appointed, and specifically the proposal by the European Commission to create a permanent tribunal to resolve international investment disputes, the UNCITRAL Working Groups III Reform Process and the rules amendment proposal undertaken by the Secretariat of the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes. In its second part, this monograph examines how arbitrators can be removed and reviews first the applicable provisions, under a variety of arbitration rules, to remove arbitrators who fail to possess the necessary qualities. It then also reviews the relevant case-law on challenges. The monograph assesses appointments and removals in a multifaceted and comprehensive way, and includes a critical assessment of the reasons and calls for reform of the ISDS system.
In Performance Requirement Prohibitions in International Investment Law, Alexandre Genest explores the prohibition of performance requirements in investment treaties. The author focuses on answering two questions: first, how do States prohibit performance requirements in investment treaties? And second, how should such prohibitions of performance requirements be interpreted and applied?
In providing answers to these questions, Alexandre Genest breaks new ground by proposing the first empirical typology of performance requirement prohibitions in investment treaties and the first in-depth analysis of arbitral awards on the subject.
Alexandre Genest formulates insightful remarks for a more deliberate and informed interpretation and application of existing performance requirement prohibitions. These remarks will help improve the drafting of performance requirement prohibitions in future investment treaties.
Extending the EU Emissions Trading System to Imported Goods and Services
Author: Ulrike Will
In Climate Border Adjustments and WTO Law, Ulrike Will develops a convincing reform proposal for a climate border adjustment (BA) on imports within the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). The proposed framework offers a realistic approach which would be immune to disputes at the WTO and comply with international climate agreements while remaining economically feasible and straightforward to implement.
The book offers a comprehensive analysis of the WTO cases that might have parallels to the unresolved case of BAs. It provides interpretations of vague legal terms of the applicable WTO agreements and guidance on how to balance between environmentally related and trade liberalising WTO rules. Typified constellations of BAs pave the way for a reform of the EU ETS Directive.
The inclusion of legal findings in the context of economic theory and climate science allows for a meaningful discussion of the functioning of the BA, relevant markets and competitive effects of specific design proposals. The proposed framework also takes into account the prevention of extra-jurisdictional effects.
A Radical Perspective on the Role of Law in the Global Political Economy
Author: Grietje Baars
In The Corporation, Law and Capitalism, Grietje Baars offers a radical Marxist perspective on the role of law in the global political economy. Closing a major gap in historical-materialist scholarship, they demonstrate how the corporation, capitalism’s main engine from city-state and colonial times to the present multinational, is a masterpiece of legal technology. The symbiosis between law and capital becomes acutely apparent in the question of ‘corporate accountability’. Baars provides a detailed analysis of corporate human rights and war crimes trials, from the Nuremberg industrialists’ trials to current efforts. The book shows that precisely because of law’s relationship to capital, law cannot prevent or remedy the ‘externalities’ produced by corporate capitalism. This realisation will generate the space required to formulate a different answer to ‘the question of the corporation’, and to global corporate capitalism more broadly, outside of the law.