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Religious pluralism is an important aspiration of contemporary societies, meaning that religious diversity is permitted and everyone has the freedom of religion or belief, or not to believe. The peaceful coexistence of people of a myriad of faiths is indispensable for securing peace in the modern era of political upheaval and economic dissonance.

This book brings together a variety of religious and non-religious perspectives on religious pluralism. It explores the key philosophical and legal issues associated with religious freedom and social harmony. Freedom of Religion and Religious Pluralism intends to serve as a valuable resource for scholars specialising in religion, citizenship, and migration studies. It will also act as a reference for courses on law, religion, and human rights.
The Yearbook of Polar Law covers a wide variety of law and policy topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic, and even the Third Pole. Many of the articles draw on presentations made at the annual Symposiums on Polar Law. The Editors-in-Chief are Gudmundur Alfredsson of the Stefansson Arctic Institute in Akureyri and the China University of Political Science and Law in Beijing, Julia Jabour of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Timo Koivurova of the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, and Akiho Shibata of the Polar Cooperation Research Centre, Kobe University.

Articles published in the Yearbook are peer reviewed, unless otherwise noted. The Yearbook will also carry book reviews and occasional news stories.

The topics covered in the Yearbook include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy, self-government and self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources, cultural rights and cultural heritage, and indigenous traditional knowledge
- local, national and corporate governance issues
- environmental law, climate change, security and human rights implications of climate change, protected areas and species, and biodiversity
- regulatory and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, and continental shelf claims
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea
- peace and security, and dispute settlement
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the polar regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Nordic Council, the International Whaling Commission, the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, and
- the activities of NGOs, think tanks and academic institutions

This Yearbook contains a selection of papers presented at the 14th Polar Law Symposium and other papers submitted.
In this commentary, Sabine Witting provides a comprehensive analysis of the Second Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. This commentary critically reflects on the impact of globalisation, digital technologies and the COVID-19 pandemic on the nature, scope and meaning of the Second Optional Protocol since its adoption on 25 May 2000. Apart from analysing a broad range of topics, from online child sexual abuse to surrogacy and ‘voluntourism’, this commentary highlights the importance of establishing child-friendly transnational collaboration mechanisms, conceptualised through a holistic gender lens and taking into consideration the online-offline nexus of violence against children and relevant Global North-Global South dynamics.
Citizenship Revocation in the 21st Century: Legal, Political and Moral Implications
Over the past two decades, denationalisation – the controversial practice of revoking citizenship from unwanted citizens – has re-entered Western law and politics with astonishing haste. In this book, Christian Prener traces this remarkable development in the United Kingdom, Denmark, France and the United States and offers a timely and critical examination of the legal, moral, and political acceptability of citizenship revocation in response to acts of misconduct or disloyalty.

Through an exploration of contemporary practices, caselaw and theory, the book distils some of the hard questions posed by the Western revival of denationalisation within international human rights law, moral philosophy and political theory as it probes the lawfulness, efficacy, and political legitimacy of revoking citizenship in the 21st century.
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Indigenous Peoples, Natural Resources and Permanent Sovereignty explores the possibility to conceive a permanent sovereignty over natural resources vested in indigenous peoples rather than in States.
The author examines the conceptualisation and content under customary international law of indigenous rights with respect to natural resources, including the impact of the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007.
The book provides a deep and updated analysis on international customs, international and regional conventions and the jurisprudence of regional courts concerning indigenous rights to natural resources, including the most recent developments in domestic jurisprudence and legislation.
Globalisation, migration, and (de-)secularisation have fundamentally transformed the concepts of religion, state, and law during the last decades. The main goal of this interdisciplinary approach is to clarify the multifaceted theoretical and practical challenges of religious diversity and socio-political pluralism in Europe.

In twenty-two chapters, the contributions to this volume revisit basic concepts, structures and institutional settings such as sovereignty; the dogma of the separation of state, church and/or religion; human and minority rights; gender and religion; varieties of fundamentalisms; interreligious dialogue and peacebuilding; and, not least, religious education.
This work, a partial history of Iranian laws between 1906 and 2020, demonstrates that the main obstacle to improving the legal status of non-Muslims in Muslim contexts is the fiqhī opinions, which are mistakenly regarded as an integral part of the Islamic faith. It aims to clarify why and how Islamic Shiite rulings about non-Muslims shifted to the Iranian laws and how it is possible to improve the legal status of the Iranian non-Muslims under the Islamic government.
Situating the Right to Citizenship within International and Regional Human Rights Law
The open access publication of this book has been published with the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation.
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the right to citizenship in international and regional human rights law. It critically reflects on the limitations of state sovereignty in nationality matters and situates the right to citizenship within the existing human rights framework. It identifies the scope and content of the right to citizenship by looking not only at statelessness, deprivation of citizenship or dual citizenship, but more broadly at acquisition, loss and enjoyment of citizenship in a migration context. Exploring the intersection of international migration, human rights law and belonging, the book provides a timely argument for recognizing a right to the citizenship of a specific state on the basis of one’s effective connections to that state according to the principle of jus nexi.