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We are currently living in a new normal. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to millions of deaths and is changing how we live, work, socialise and move through the world. But Covid-19 is one of many epidemics to have shaped human life throughout history, causing untold suffering and death and changing how we live. Their effects are seldom limited to one country or region, and how societies prevent, manage and recover from epidemics is inevitably influenced by international law. Epidemics are regulated not only by international health law but also by international human rights law, international environmental law, international trade and investment law, international transport law, international law of peace and security and international humanitarian law. Despite this, they have received limited attention in mainstream international legal scholarship. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of epidemics and international law from the perspective of general international law. Featuring thirty-one essays by researchers from around the world and from various areas of expertise, it demonstrates how epidemics shape – and are shaped by – international legal norms across varying domains of international law.

This volume is the product of collaborative work conducted between August 2020 and April 2021 as part of the Centre for Studies and Research on Epidemics and International Law.
Robert KOLB, Le droit international comme corps de droit privé et de droit public. Cours général de droit international public
La protection internationale au profit des personnes vulnérables en droit international des droits de l’homme, par S. PERRAKIS, professeur émérite à l’Université Panteion.
Sylvain BOLLÉE, Les pouvoirs inhérents des arbitres internationaux
Dire TLADI, The Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors
Les obligations internationales, par P. D’ARGENT, professeur à l’Université catholique de Louvain
Malgré l’immense diversité des obligations internationales, ce cours soutient que toute obligation internationale est faite d’une combinaison de modalités extrinsèques et de modalités intrinsèques. Les modalités extrinsèques concernent les manières dont l’obligation lie son débiteur par rapport à d’autres sujets ou bénéficiaires. Les modalités intrinsèques concernent les manières dont l’obligation lie son débiteur par rapport à lui-même. En rassemblant des catégories et des notions bien établies, et en montrant en quoi leurs différentes combinaisons traversent toutes les obligations internationales, ce cours propose un outil d’analyse pour mieux en rendre compte, en en dégageant le régime général. Cet exercice a pour seule ambition d’aider les négociateurs, les juges et les praticiens à affiner leurs choix normatifs et leurs pratiques argumentatives, compte tenu des archétypes ici présentés.

Relationships Between International Criminal Law and Other Branches of International Law, by W. A. SCHABAS, Professor at Middlesex University.
After lengthy decades of relative inactivity, in recent years international criminal law has emerged to become an important branch of public international law. It has significant affinities with three other branches, international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international refugee law. The course examines the relationships, interactions and overlaps of these different subject areas, as well as considering the place of international criminal law within general international law.
Author: Franco Ferrari
According to some commentators, forum shopping is an “evil” that must be eradicated. It has been suggested that the unification of substantive law through international conventions constitutes one way to achieve this outcome. This book shows that the drafting of uniform substantive law convention cannot prevent forum shopping. The reasons are classified into two main categories: convention-extrinsic and convention-intrinsic reasons. The former category comprises those reasons upon which uniform substantive law conventions do not have an impact at all. These reasons range from the costs of access to justice to the bias of potential adjudicators to the enforceability of judgments. The convention-intrinsic reasons, on the other hand, are reasons that relate to the nature and design of uniform substantive law conventions, and include their limited substantive and international spheres of application as well as their limited scope of application, the need to provide for reservations, etc. This book also focuses on another reason why forum shopping cannot be overcome: the impossibility of ensuring uniform applications and interpretations of the various uniform substantive law conventions.
Solidarity and Community Interests: Driving Forces for the Interpretation and Development of International Law; General Course on Public International Law by Rüdiger Wolfrum.
References to legal regimes serving the interests of the community of States have become quite frequent, less so references to regimes guided by the principle of solidarity. The General Course undertook to analyze the relevant regimes. This analysis established contours on what are the essential features of community interests and the principle of solidarity. It identified three types of community interests.
In a further step, the Course assessed as to whether the traditional international norm- making as well as its implementation system meet the challenges resulting from the dedication to community interests or to the principle of solidarity. It concludes that these regimes have had a significant impact upon the international normative order. International regimes are developed in stages; non-legally binding norms initiate and guide on a principled level such norm making. Non-legally binding norms occasionally substitute legal regimes. New actors besides States and international organizations influence the development international norms and new fora have emerged initiating norms or develop them progressively. These normative developments have had an influence on the relevant international implementation/enforcement systems. The Course identifies a clear shift from confrontational means of enforcement to non-confrontational ones.
Finally, the Course identified that the existing international dispute settlement system is only beginning to meet the challenges posed by community oriented regimes. The possibility to bring a case before an international court or tribunal is still dominated by the dogma that such action can only be brought by States, which can claim the violation of their individual interests. The International Court of Justice eroded this dogma in its Order of January 2020 concerning the dispute between The Gambia and Myanmar.