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The Bourbon monarchs who ascended the Spanish throne in 1700 attempted to reform the colonial system they had inherited, and, in particular, to make administration more efficient and cost-effective. This book analyses one aspect of the Bourbon reforms, which was the efforts to transform frontier missions, to make the missions more cost-effective, and to accelerate the integration of indigenous peoples in northern Mexico to European cultural norms. In some instances, the Crown had funded missions for more than a century, but with minimal results. The book attempts to show how the mission programs changed, and what the consequences – especially demographic – were for the indigenous peoples brought to live on the missions.
This volume presents Greek Maritime History and unravels the historical trajectory of a maritime nation par excellence in the Eastern Mediterranean. At the core of the book lies the rise of the Greek merchant fleet and its transformation from a peripheral to an international carrier. Following the evolution of Greek shipping for more than three centuries (17th-20th century), the book traces a maritime nation in its making and provides proof of a different, yet successful pattern of maritime development compared to other European maritime nations. The chapters adopt a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach – spanning from shipping, fishing and trade to piracy, technology, human resources and entrepreneurship – and reflect the main directions of Greek maritime historiography over the last thirty years.

Contributors are: Apostolos Delis, Dimitris Dimitropoulos, Zisis Fotakis, Katerina Galani, Gelina Harlaftis, Evdokia Olympitou, Gerassimos D. Pagratis, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Socrates Petmezas, Evrydiki Sifneos, Anna Sydorenko, Ioannis Theotokas, and Katerina Vourkatioti.
A Global Approach to Spaces, Representations and Worlds of Trade, 1500–1800
Hans Holbein’s Triumphs (1532-1534), commissioned for the headquarters of the Hanseatic League in London and Kano Naizen’s The Portuguese namban (‘foreigners’) painted in 1543 in Japan are representations of worlds of trade, where wealth, speculation, exploitation, poverty, curiosity, encounters and the exotic relate effortlessly. These worlds multiplied in Africa, the America’s, Asia and Europe as mercantile cultures met in a globalizing world. From these encounters, power, subjugation and conflict arose as part of the same world as cooperation, cross-culturalism and cosmopolitism. Understanding early modern merchant cultures is thus paramount to comprehend the sinews of globalization before 1800.

Merchants worldwide shared trading interests. These interests shaped a panoply of encounters of mercantile cultures across space and time. This book sketches the commonalities and underlines the differences of mercantile practices and representations during the Early Modern period.

Contributors are: Laurence Fontaine, David Graizbord, William Pettigrew, Edmond J. Smith, Radhika Seshan, Rila Mukherjee, Jurre J. A. Knoest, Noelle Richardson, Joseph P. McDermott, Mark Harberlëin, Francisco Bethencourt, Edgar Pereira, and Germano Maifreda.
The medieval dissenters known as ‘Waldenses’, named after their first founder, Valdes of Lyons, have long attracted careful scholarly study, especially from specialists writing in Italian, French and German. Waldenses were found across continental Europe, from Aragon to the Baltic and East-Central Europe. They were long-lived, resilient, and diverse. They lived in a special relationship with the prevailing Catholic culture, making use of the Church’s services but challenging its claims.

Many Waldenses are known mostly, or only, because of the punitive measures taken by inquisitors and the Church hierarchy against them. This volume brings for the first time a wide-ranging, multi-authored interpretation of the medieval Waldenses to an English-language readership, across Europe and over the four centuries until the Reformation.

Contributors include: Marina Benedetti, Peter Biller, Luciana Borghi Cedrini, Euan Cameron, Jacques Chiffoleau, Albert De Lange, Andrea Giraudo, Franck Mercier, Grado Giovanni Merlo, Georg Modestin, Martine Ostorero, Damian J. Smith, Claire Taylor, and Kathrin Utz Tremp.
When smallpox inoculation entered western medical practice in 1721 it aroused considerable controversy. A broad-based cohort of enlightened Germans such as publishers, poets, pastors and elite women attempted to dispel the doubts and encourage the innovative procedure. Yet many parents remained fearful, and the contagiousness of inoculation also necessitated a new approach. National pride in the past defeat of bubonic plague aroused optimism that smallpox could be banished using a similar strategy. The arrival in 1800 of Jenner’s vaccine ended the debates by offering yet another promising new approach.
Battling Smallpox before Vaccination explores the social and medical impacts of inoculation. It offers belated recognition for the valiant attempts of the many protagonists battling against the so-called ‘murdering angel’ before Edward Jenner’s discovery of vaccination. It provides a comprehensive description and penetrating analysis of the understanding and perception of smallpox, the propagation of pro-inoculation information, varied reactions to inoculation, and debates over the idealistic goal of eradicating smallpox.
Images of Miraculous Healing in the Early Modern Netherlands explores the ways in which paintings and prints of biblical miracles shaped viewers’ approaches to physical and sensory impairments and bolstered their belief in supernatural healing and charitable behavior. Drawing upon a vast range of sources, Barbara Kaminska demonstrates that visual imagery held a central place in premodern disability discourses, and that the exegesis of New Testament miracle stories determined key attitudes toward the sick and the poor. Addressed to middle-class collectors, many of the images analyzed in this study have hitherto been neglected by art historians.
There is nothing more international than the formation of national identities. From barbarian epics to ethnographic museums, from national languages to emblematic landscapes or typical costumes, this book retraces the cultural fabrication of the European nations, documenting how national identities are not facts of nature but constructions.

The list of basic elements of a national identity is well known: ancestral founders, a history, heroes, a language, monuments, landscapes, and folklore. Compiling this list was the great enterprise carried out throughout Europe during the last two centuries. Patriotic militancy and the transnational exchanges of ideas and know-how created identities that are very specific, but similar precisely in their difference.
Volume Editor: Patrick Karl O’Brien
Historiographically this book rests on the fact that European transitions to modern economic growth were obstructed and promoted by the Revolution in France and 15 years of geopolitical conflict sustained by Napoleon in order to establish French Hegemony over the states and economies of Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Portugal and overseas commerce.

The chapters reveal that their authors concerns to analyse both the nature and significance of connections between geopolitical and economic forces lend coherence to a collaborative endeavour utilising comparative methods to address a mega question. What might be plausibly concluded about the economic costs and the benefits of this protracted conjuncture of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Warfare?

Contributors are: Patrick Karl O’Brien, Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Silvia Marzagalli, Marjolein ’t Hart, Johan Joor, Mark Dincecco, Giovanni Federico, Leandro Prados de la Escosura, Carlos Santiago-Caballero, Cristina Moreira, Jaime Reis, Rita Martins de Sousa, and Peter M.Solar.
Legal historians have analysed the characteristics of merchant guilds and nationes (i.e., associations of foreign merchants), as well as the political clout of merchants, including foreign ones. However, how the legal status of citizens related to the merchant class and how its contents were influenced by trade remains largely unclear. Did governments have a policy of citizenship that was tailored to commercial interests? Were foreign merchants belonging to a separate legal category of resident? If so, what defined this category? To what extent could different types of legal status and membership of communities or guilds overlap? And how did all this affect merchants’ identities, their self-images of belonging? This collection of essays provides anwers to these questions.

Contributors are: Sonja Breustedt, Pieter De Reu, Gijs Dreijer, Maurits den Hollander, Marco In’t Veld, Marta Lupi, Manon Moerman, Remko Mooi, Patrick Naaktgeboren, and Joost Possemiers.
Strathspey and the Regality of Grant (c. 1690-1748)
This book fills a significant gap in our current understanding of early modern Scottish history. It is the first systematic consideration of the workings of seigneurial courts of feudal lords in 18th century Scotland. For several hundred years, these courts were one of the main forums for justice across Europe. Until 1748, Scottish courts of barony and regality handled both criminal complaints and civil disputes; they made by-laws and levied taxes; they set wages and enforced morality. The 18th century was a time of epoch-defining events in Scotland, such as the Jacobite rebellions, and union with England. The amount of literature on this period of Scottish history is extensive; it is therefore remarkable that the story of these courts has been left untouched.