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We are currently living in a new normal. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to millions of deaths and is changing how we live, work, socialise and move through the world. But Covid-19 is one of many epidemics to have shaped human life throughout history, causing untold suffering and death and changing how we live. Their effects are seldom limited to one country or region, and how societies prevent, manage and recover from epidemics is inevitably influenced by international law. Epidemics are regulated not only by international health law but also by international human rights law, international environmental law, international trade and investment law, international transport law, international law of peace and security and international humanitarian law. Despite this, they have received limited attention in mainstream international legal scholarship. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of epidemics and international law from the perspective of general international law. Featuring thirty-one essays by researchers from around the world and from various areas of expertise, it demonstrates how epidemics shape – and are shaped by – international legal norms across varying domains of international law.

This volume is the product of collaborative work conducted between August 2020 and April 2021 as part of the Centre for Studies and Research on Epidemics and International Law.
Author: R. Wolfrum
Solidarity and community interest may appear to be purely abstract notions. But in fact they may form the basis of a more flexible approach to international lawmaking than traditional formulas of legally binding commitments. Through an empirical analysis of existing and emerging public international law, this book traces these concepts in existing regimes and investigates the impact they have had and will continue to have on the progressive development of specific international regimes, particularly those serving the protection of the environment and of human rights. It discusses how through these two regimes these concepts have changed the international normative order and explores the challenges such changes have created for implementation and enforcement. One such challenge is the lack of an adequate dispute settlement regime, and the book closes with some practical suggestions for an appropriate mechanism.
La protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux en droit international public et en droit international privé, par José Angelo Estrella-Faria.
La protection des biens culturels religieux comporte généralement trois dimensions : la conservation et la préservation physique des biens ; les mesures visant à garantir l’accès aux biens culturels et à garder leur fonction cultuelle ; et finalement leur rattachement territorial. Le droit international des conflits armés et le droit pénal international, ainsi que le droit du patrimoine culturel universel et les droits humains, offrent des niveaux variables de protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux par des mesures préventives et répressives, auxquelles s’ajoutent des normes de droit privé régissant les conditions de la circulation de ces biens. Le cours aborde certains aspects du traitement juridique des biens culturels dans ces différents domaines du droit ayant des implications particulières pour les biens culturels d’intérêt religieux, tant au niveau international que national, et la manière dont les domaines pertinents du droit prennent en considération les règles et besoins propres des communautés religieuses.
The Private International Law of Class Actions: A Functional Approach, by Michael Karayanni.
A transnational class action raises fundamental questions in regards of the class action court’s jurisdiction over the defendant and the class members, on how to choose the applicable law, and ultimately on how to deal with the judgment if and when it comes up for enforcement or recognition before a foreign court. At times these questions and the complications they give rise to, become part and parcel of the class action court’s consideration whether to certify the class action as such. In these lectures, I will identify the major private international problems that are endemic to transnational class actions and how these were handled, principally by courts in the US, Canada and Israel. I will also offer an analytical legal framework that can better assist us in dealing with the private international law questions pertaining to transnational class action and that so by identifying three different categories of class actions, with each category demanding a separate and more surgical treatment.

Self-Defence and “Unwilling or Unable” States, by Said Mahmoudi.
A frequently debated question in international law after the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001 has been whether the right to self-defence is available for a victim state when the non-state actor responsible for the attack is located in and operates from another state, which is unwilling or unable to forestall the attack. The ICJ has established that the right to self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter can be invoked against non-state actors' armed attacks provided the attacks are attributable to the state hosting such actors.
The purpose of the ‘unwilling or unable’ standard is to do away with the attribution requirement. It is thus claimed that the mere fact that an armed attack is carried out by a non-state actor active in the territory of another state should entitle the victim to use of force in self-defence against that actor within the territorial state.

The present text discusses whether state practice, the jurisprudence of the courts and the doctrine of international law in the past two decades indicate any change in the scope of the right to self-defence and its application against armed attacks by non-state actors. Its conclusion is that there has not yet been any change and the ‘unwilling or unable’ standard remains as controversial as when it gained currency in the aftermath of the 9/11 events.
La protection internationale au profit des personnes vulnérables en droit international des droits de l’homme, par S. PERRAKIS, professeur émérite à l’Université Panteion.
Robert KOLB, Le droit international comme corps de droit privé et de droit public. Cours général de droit international public
Sylvain BOLLÉE, Les pouvoirs inhérents des arbitres internationaux
Dire TLADI, The Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors