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A wide range of specialists provide a comprehensive overview of the reception of Pythagorean ideas in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, shedding new light especially on the understudied ‘Medieval Pythagoras’ of the Latin West. They also explore the survival of Pythagoreanism in the Arabic, Jewish, and Persian cultures, thus adopting a multicultural perspective. Their common concern is to detect the sources of this reception, and to follow their circulation in diverse linguistic areas. The reader can thus have a panoramic view of the major themes belonging to the Pythagorean heritage – number philosophy and the sciences of the quadrivium; ethics and way of life; theology, metaphysics and the soul – until the Early Modern times.
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Aristotle's De Animalibus was an important source of zoological knowledge for the ancient Greeks and for medieval Arabs and Europeans. In the thirteenth century, the work was twice translated into Latin. One translation was produced directly from the Greek by William of Moerbeke. An earlier translation, made available as a critical edition in the present volume for the first time, was produced through an intermediary Arabic translation (Kitāb al-Ḥayawān) by Michael Scot (1175 - c. 1232). Scot's translation was one of the main sources of knowledge on animals in Europe and widely used until well into the fifteenth century. As a faithful translation of a translation produced by a Syriac-speaking Christian, the text contributes to our knowledge of Middle Arabic. The De Animalibus is composed of three sections: History of Animals (ten books), Parts of Animals (four books) and Generation of Animals (five books). Parts of Animals and Generation of Animals were published by BRILL as Volumes 5.2 and 5.3 of the book series ASL in 1998 (ASL 5.2) and 1992 (ASL 5.3). The present Volume 5.1.a contains the first section of Scot's translation of History of Animals: the general introduction and books 1-3, with Notes. Editions of the two concluding parts of History of Animals, ASL 5.1.b, books 4-6 and ASL 5.1.c, books 7-10, are in preparation. Complete Latin-Arabic and Arabic-Latin indices of History of Animals will be published in due course.
In Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition stellt Fedor Benevich einen Kerngedanken der Metaphysik und der Epistemologie Avicennas (gest. 1037) vor: seine Theorie der Essenz und der wissenschaftlichen Bestimmung essentieller und notwendiger Attribute. Die Studie untersucht zentrale Begriffe der avicennischen Philosophie wie Essentialität, Notwendigkeit, Universalität, Unmittelbarkeit, Primärheit und Spezifizität. Zudem wird erstmals dargelegt, wie Avicenna seine Position in Bezug auf diese Thematik im Laufe seiner Karriere entwickelte und so seinen revolutionären “konzeptionellen Essentialismus” ausarbeitete. Es wird weiterhin gezeigt, dass Avicennas Position der aristotelischen Tradition zu Teilen folgt, von dieser jedoch am zentralen Stellen abweicht, insbesondere dort, wo sich Avicenna kritisch mit den Interpretationen der „Bagdader Peripatetiker“ auseinandersetzte.

In Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition Fedor Benevich presents the key doctrine of Avicenna’s (d. 1037) metaphysics and epistemology: his theory of essence and the scientific determination of essential and necessary attributes. The book studies central notions of Avicenna’s philosophy such as essentiality, necessity, universality, immediacy, primacy, and specificity. It also provides an unprecedented account of how Avicenna’s views on these issues changed throughout his career, in arguing for his revolutionary “conceptual essentialism”. Avicenna’s position partially follows the Aristotelian tradition yet also departs from it, especially when Avicenna argues against the Baghdad Peripatetic School.
The Comparable Body - Analogy and Metaphor in Ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman Medicine explores how analogy and metaphor illuminate and shape conceptions about the human body and disease, through 11 case studies from ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman medicine. Topics address the role of analogy and metaphor as features of medical culture and theory, while questioning their naturalness and inevitability, their limits, their situation between the descriptive and the prescriptive, and complexities in their portrayal as a mutually intelligible medium for communication and consensus among users.
The Philonic Interpretation of Biblical Law in Relation to the Palestinian Halakah (1940)