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Special Editors: Nigel Bankes (Professor and Chair of Natural Resources Law, The University of Calgary and Adjunct Professor, KG Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea (JCLOS), UiT The Arctic University of Norway), Erik J. Molenaar (Deputy Director, Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea (NILOS), Utrecht University and Professor, KG Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea (JCLOS), UiT The Arctic University of Norway) and Tore Henriksen (Director, KG Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea (JCLOS), UiT The Arctic University of Norway).

The Yearbook of Polar Law is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues with regard to the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organisations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

The papers in this volume are principally based on presentations at the 11th Polar Law Symposium, held in Tromsø, Norway, in October 2018.
Exploring the Choice between Hard and Soft International Law
Advocating Social Change through International Law, edited by Professors Daniel Bradlow and David Hunter, explores the use of hard and soft international law in advocating for social change. Using case studies rooted in inter alia human rights, international crimes, environmental protection, public heath, and financial regulation, the book focuses on both state and non-state actors’ strategic choices regarding the use of hard and soft international law in advocating for social change. Looking through the social change lens provides new insights into the interplay between soft and hard international law, the perceived costs and benefits associated with hard and soft international law in different contexts, and the factors affecting the effectiveness of hard and soft approaches to international law.
In Incorporating Indigenous Rights in the International Regime on Biodiversity Protection, Federica Cittadino convincingly interprets the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its related instruments in light of indigenous rights and the principle of self-determination. Cittadino’s harmonisation of these formally separated regimes serves at least two main purposes. First, it ensures respect for the human rights framework that protects indigenous rights whilst implementing the biodiversity regime. Second, harmonisation allows for the full operationalisation of the indigenous related provisions of the CBD framework that concern traditional knowledge, genetic resources, and protected areas. Federica Cittadino successfully demonstrates that the CBD may allow for the protection of indigenous rights in ways that are more advanced than under current human rights law.
Special Editors: Dorothée Cambou (Postdoctoral Researcher, Helsinki University) and Joëlle Klein (Junior Researcher, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland)

The Yearbook of Polar Law is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues with regard to the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organisations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

The papers in this volume are based on presentations at the 10th Polar Law Symposium, held in Rovaniemi in November 2017.
Sustainable Development and the Practice of Good Governance
Editor: Wei Zhang
In The Right to Development authors offer a new path for the implementation and protection of the right to development from the new perspective of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Instead of emphasizing the economic perspective, this book focuses on how to realize the right to sustainable development by resolution of conflicts among the economy, the environment and society.
Integrating the value analysis into the empirical analysis method, this book expands the scope of the United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development and strengthens its practical function, extracts Chinese experiences, lessons from South Asia, local knowledge in South Africa and practice in Peru on the implementation of the right to development, and puts forward the idea of building human rights criteria in the South.
In Intergenerational Equity: Environmental and Cultural Concerns, the editors have produced an important, broad-based volume on intergenerational equity. The authors explore the principle of intergenerational equity in many dimensions, from the theoretical to the practical. While the primary focus is on intergenerational equity in the context of environmental resources and cultural heritage, the principle is also addressed in a broad array of other contexts. The final section of the volume considers intergenerational justice as it applies to indigenous peoples, genocide, migration, sovereign wealth funds and foreign investment. The chapters also provide a critical analysis of the issues and a consideration of the difficulties in implementing intergenerational equity.
The Yearbook of Polar Law is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues with regard to the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

The papers in this volume are based on presentations at the ninth symposium in Akureyri in October 2016.
The Yearbook of Polar Law is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

Many of the papers in this volume are based on presentations at the eighth Polar Law Symposium held in the U.S. state of Alaska from September 23-26, 2015.
New Approaches to Protecting the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflict
Editor: Rosemay Rayfuse
The chapters in this volume have their origins in papers presented at a Workshop held at Lund University in Sweden. The Workshop gathered together experts from Europe, the United States and Australia, including leading academics as well as representatives from the ICRC, the Swedish, Norwegian and Danish Red Cross Societies and the Swedish and Norwegian governments, to examine the relevance and adequacy of the existing regime for environmental protection during armed conflict as well as the ability of other international legal mechanisms to contribute to the amelioration of damage to the environment arising as a result of or in relation to armed conflict. The book, like the Workshop, takes as its starting point the existing IHL regime for the protection of the environment during armed conflict and goes on to explore the application of other legal regimes that may be relevant to protection of the environment both during armed conflict and, as in the broader context envisaged by the ILC, in relation to armed conflict. As this thought-provoking volume demonstrates, a vast range of issues, actors and legal regimes must now be considered and some pro-active and imaginative research and thinking brought to bear in any consideration of this ever-important topic. Some papers appeared previously in a special issue of the Nordic Journal of International Law.
The traditional conception of security as national security against military threats has changed radically since the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945. The perceived nature and sources of threats have been widened as well as the objects of protection, now including individuals, societies, the environment as such and the whole globe. In International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security the contributors reflect on whether and how changing concepts and conceptions of security have affected different fields of international law, such as the use of force, the law of the sea, human rights, international environmental law and international humanitarian law.

The authors of this book have been inspired by Professor Said Mahmoudi to which this Liber Amoricum is dedicated.