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Rationis Imago

Descartes' Dichten, Träumen, Denken

Jakob Moser

Zum Abschluss seines Studiums entwirft Descartes ein Thesenblatt. Darin dichtet er eine Allegorie seines Bildungsweges, die unser Bild vom Begründer des modernen Rationalismus irritiert.
Für den klassischen Descartes gilt allein das rationale Denken als unbezweifelbare Quelle aller Wissenschaft. Dahingegen schöpfte er in seinem frühsten Text, der Widmung seines Thesenblatts von 1616, aus den Quellen der Musen, der antiken Poesie und Mythologie. Wenige Jahre später erblickte er in seinen Träumen eine Anthologie römischer Dichter und deutet sie als Verheißung seiner künftigen Philosophie. Die intuitive Einbildungskraft der Dichter überflügelt das deduktive Denken der Philosophen. Ausgehend vom Thesenblatt zeichnet Moser ein ungewöhnliches Portrait des jungen Descartes, um es schlaglichtartig mit seinen späteren Werken zu kontrastieren. Die nackte Vernunft erscheint dabei immer wieder neu im Kleid der Imagination.

The Radical Machiavelli

Politics, Philosophy, and Language

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Edited by Filippo Del Lucchese, Fabio Frosini and Vittorio Morfino

In The Radical Machiavelli: Politics, Philosophy and Language, some of the finest Machiavellian scholars explore the Florentine’s thought five hundred years after the composition of his masterpiece, The Prince. Their analysis, however, goes past The Prince, extending to Machiavelli’s entire corpus and shining new light on his political, historical, and military works, with a special focus on their heritage in modern Marxist thought, the arena in which they reverberate most profoundly and originally.

Rather than a neutral, comprehensive, and safe interpretation, this book offers a partial and even partisan reading of Machiavelli, the 16th-century thinker who continues to divide scholars and interpreters, forcing them to confront their responsibility as contemporary thinkers in a global society where Machiavelli's ideas and the issues they address still matter.

Contributors are: Etienne Balibar, Banu Bargu, Jérémie Barthas, Thomas Berns, Alison Brown, Filippo Del Lucchese, Romain Descendre, Jean-Louis Fournel, Fabio Frosini, Giorgio Inglese, Mikko Lahtinen, Jacques Lezra, John P. McCormick, Warren Montag, Vittorio Morfino, Mohamed Moulfi, Gabriele Pedullà, Tania Rispoli, Peter D. Thomas, Sebastian Torres, Miguel Vatter, Stefano Visentin, Yves Winter, and Jean-Claude Zancarini.

Anti-Atheism in Early Modern England 1580-1720

The Atheist Answered and His Error Confuted

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Kenneth Sheppard

Atheists generated widespread anxieties between the Reformation and the Enlightenment. In response to such anxieties a distinct genre of religious apologetics emerged in England between 1580 and 1720. By examining the form and the content of the confutation of atheism, Anti-Atheism in Early Modern England demonstrates the prevalence of patterned assumptions and arguments about who an atheist was and what an atheist was supposed to believe, outlines and analyzes the major arguments against atheists, and traces the important changes and challenges to this apologetic discourse in the early Enlightenment.

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Edited by Jakob Leth Fink

Suárez on Aristotelian Causality offers the first comprehensive account of Francisco Suárez’s position with respect to the four Aristotelian causes in his Metaphysical Disputations. Suárez deals with these causes in the greater part of Metaphysical Disputations 12–27 approximately a third of his famous work on metaphysics. Nevertheless, no previous attempt at analysis of causality as a part of his overall metaphysical position has been offered.
The material, formal, efficient and final cause as understood by Suárez each receives a chapter in this volume just as his general account of causality is considered. This should be relevant to anyone interested in the role and pertinence of Aristotelian causality for Suárez’s metaphysics.
Contributors (in order of appearance) are Jakob Leth Fink, Erik Åkerlund, Kara Richardson, Stephan Schmid and Sydney Penner.

Conflicting Values of Inquiry

Ideologies of Epistemology in Early Modern Europe

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Edited by Tamás Demeter, Kathryn Murphy and Claus Zittel

Historical research in previous decades has done a great deal to explore the social and political context of early modern natural and moral inquiries. Particularly since the publication of Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer’s Leviathan and the Air-Pump (1985) several studies have attributed epistemological stances and debates to clashes of political and theological ideologies. The present volume suggests that with an awareness of this context, it is now worth turning back to questions of the epistemic content itself. The contributors to the present collection were invited to explore how certain non-epistemic values had been turned into epistemic ones, how they had an effect on epistemic content, and eventually how they became ideologies of knowledge playing various roles in inquiry and application throughout early modern Europe.

The Making of Copernicus

Early Modern Transformations of a Scientist and his Science

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Edited by Wolfgang Neuber, Claus Zittel and Thomas Rahn

All those interested in Copernicus, transformation of images, application of metaphors, history of science,

History of Logic and Semantics

Studies on the Aristotelian and Terminist Traditions

Edited by Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe and María Cerezo

This volume pays homage to the historian of logic Angel d’Ors (1951-2012), by bringing together a set of studies that together illuminate the complex historical development of logic and semantics. Two main traditions, Aristotelian and terminist, are showcased to demonstrate the changes and confrontations that constitute this history, and a number of different authors and texts, from the Boethian reception of Aristotle to the post-medieval terminism, are discussed.
Special topics dealt with include the medieval reception of ancient logic; technical tools for the medieval analysis of language; the medieval theory of consequence; the medieval practice of disputation and sophisms; and the post-medieval refinement of the terminist tools.
Contributors are E.J. Ashworth, Allan Bäck, María Cerezo, Sten Ebbesen, José Miguel Gambra, C.H. Kneepkens, Kalvin Normore, Angel d’Ors, Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe, Stephen Read, Joke Spruyt, Luisa Valente, and Mikko Yrjönsuuri.

These articles were also published in Vivarium, Volume 53, Nos. 2-4 (2015).

IX-6 Ordinis noni tomus sextus

Polemics with Alberto Pio of Carpi

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Chris L. Heesakkers

This volume of the Erasmi Opera Omnia contains the critical edition of Erasmus' polemics with the Italian layman Alberto Pio, Prince of Carpi, about Erasmus' New Testament Project, in particular his Paraphrases, and also his former successful works, such as his Enchiridion and Moriae encomium. Erasmus was very annoyed that a layman had criticised his theological works and, moreover, had suggested that Erasmus' theological and moral views came suspiciously close to Luther's. Erasmus also blamed his opponent for not reading the earlier defences of his views in his polemics with Beda, Stunica and the Spanish monks.

Diderots Erzählungen

Die Charaktergeschichte als Medium der Aufklärung

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Konstanze Baron

In den letzten Jahren seines Lebens hat der französische Aufklärer Denis Diderot eine Reihe von Erzählungen vorgelegt, die als "Summe" seines moralphilosophischen Denkens gelten können. Hier werden sie erstmals im Zusammenhang dargestellt und interpretiert.
Mit Diderot erreicht die aufklärerische Erzählkunst einen Höhepunkt; ging es bisher vor allem darum, philosophische Inhalte auf unterhaltsame Weise zu vermitteln, finden nun die ästhetischen Bedingungen und Kategorien des Erzählens selber Eingang in die moraltheoretische Überlegung. Wie die vorliegende Studie zeigt, ist dabei die Kategorie des Charakters von entscheidender Bedeutung: neben dem philosophischen Roman und der moralischen Erzählung etabliert sich die Charakternovelle als neue Form.

Geographica und Cartographica aus dem Hause Bertuch

Zur Ökonomisierung des Naturwissens um 1800

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Andreas Christoph

Edited by Andreas Christoph

Die Etablierung der deutschen Kartographie als Wissenschaft wird nun erstmals in einer ausführlichen Historiographie dargestellt.
In der Übergangszeit zwischen 18. und 19. Jahrhundert ereignete sich die außerakademische Institutionalisierung der kartographischen Verlage in Weimar und Jena. Zwischen 1790 und 1850 durchlebten »Landes-Industrie-Comptoir« und »Geographisches Institut« Phasen des wissenschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Aufschwungs, aber auch des beginnenden Niedergangs.
Im Mittelpunkt dieser Entwicklung stand der Autor, Verleger und Wissenschaftsunternehmer Friedrich Justin Bertuch – ein außergewöhnlich innovativer Produzent von Karten, Atlanten und Globen.