The East Syriac mystic Joseph Hazzaya (8th century AD) wrote
On Providence in an attempt to derive universal salvation (
apokatastasis) from Theodore of Mopsuestia, the highest theological authority in the East Syriac Church, and thus to defend himself from heresy accusations coming from that Church’s Primate, Catholicos Timothy I, as Nestor Kavvadas draws out in the introduction to this first edition and translation of the treatise. At the same time, in
On Providence Joseph Hazzaya reacts, by way of a remodelled Elijah-Apocalypse, to a rising wave of conversions to Islam that was to change the face of his homeland Mesopotamia as well as of the entire Middle East; thus,
On Providence is a valuable addition to the scanty sources on that epochal change.