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Medieval Perceptual Puzzles

Theories of Sense Perception in the 13th and 14th Centuries

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Edited by Elena Băltuță

In our daily lives, we are surrounded by all sorts of things – such as trees, cars, persons, or madeleines – and perception allows us access to them. But what does ‘to perceive’ actually mean? What is it that we perceive? How do we perceive? Do we perceive the same way animals do? Does reason play a role in perception? Such questions occur naturally today. But was it the same in the past, centuries ago? The collected volume tackles this issue by turning to the Latin philosophy of the 13th and 14th centuries. Did medieval thinkers raise the same, or similar, questions as we do with respect to perception? What answers did they provide? What arguments did they make for raising the questions they did, and for the answers they gave to them? The philosophers taken into consideration are, among others, Albert the Great, Roger Bacon, William of Auvergne, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, John Pecham, Richard Rufus, Peter Olivi, Robert Kilwardby, John Buridan, and Jean of Jandun.

Contributors are Elena Băltuță, Daniel De Haan, Martin Klein, Andrew LaZella, Lukáš Lička, Mattia Mantovani, André Martin, Dominik Perler, Paolo Rubini, José Filipe Silva, Juhana Toivanen, and Rega Wood.

Edited by Philip MacEwen

Idealist Alternatives to Materialist Philosophies of Science (ed. Philip MacEwen) makes the case that there are other, and arguably better, ways of understanding science than materialism. Philosophical idealism leads the list of challengers but critical realism and various forms of pluralism are fully articulated as well. To ensure that the incumbent is adequately represented, the volume includes a major defence of materialism/naturalism from Anaxagoras to the present. Contributors include Leslie Armour, John D. Norton, and Fred Wilson with a Foreword by Nicholas Rescher. For anyone interested in whether materialism has a monopoly on science, this volume presents a good case for materialism but a better one for its alternatives.

Roots in the Air

A Philosophical Autobiography of a Philosopher, Artist, and Musician

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Michael Krausz

By way of dialogues, Michael Krausz offers philosophical reflections about his life as philosopher, artist, and musician. He also rehearses his views about relativism, interpretation, creativity, and self-realization. Much of Krausz’s work has been inspired by conversations with thinkers such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Isaiah Berlin, the Dalai Lama, and musicians such as Josef Gingold, Frederik Prausnitz, and Luis Biava. While the death of his grandparents in Auschwitz continues to disquiet his consciousness, Krausz’s critiques of versions of Advaitic Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism led him to a distinctive humanism. This thought-provoking book includes personal and professional accounts about particular philosophers, artists, and musicians. It will edify anyone who, like Krausz, has confronted issues of self-identity and human existence.

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Edited by Roberto Hofmeister Pich and Andreas Speer

This volume collects essays which are thematically connected through the work of Kent Emery Jr., to whom the volume is dedicated. A main focus lies on the attempts to bridge the gap between mysticism and a systematic approach to medieval philosophical thought. The essays address a wide range of topics concerning (a) the nature of the human soul (in philosophical and theological discourse); (b) medieval theories of cognition (natural and supernatural), self-knowledge and knowledge of God; (c) the human soul’s contemplation of, and union with, God; (d) the tradition of “the modes of theology” in the Middle Ages; (e) the relation between philosophy and theology. Various articles are dedicated to major figures of the 13th and 14th century philosophy, others display new material based on critical editions. Contributors are Jan A. Aertsen, Stephen Brown, Bernardo Carlos Bazán, William J. Courtenay, Alfredo Santiago Culleton, Silvia Donati, Bernd Goehring, Guy Guldentops, Daniel Hobbins, Roberto Hofmeister Pich, Georgi Kapriev, Steven P. Marrone, Stephen M. Metzger, Timothy B. Noone, Mikolaj Olszewski, Alessandro Palazzo, Garrett R. Smith, Andreas Speer, Carlos Steel, Loris Sturlese, Chris Schabel, Christian Trottmann, and Gordon A. Wilson.

Walter Chatton on Future Contingents

Between Formalism and Ontology

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Jon Bornholdt

In Walter Chatton on Future Contingents, Jon Bornholdt presents the first full-length translation, commentary, and analysis of the various attempts by Chatton (14th century C.E.) to solve the ancient problem of the status and significance of statements about the future. At issue is the danger of so-called logical determinism: if it is true now that a human will perform a given action tomorrow, is that human truly free to perform or refrain from performing that action? Bornholdt shows that Chatton constructed an original (though problematic) formal analysis that enabled him to canvass various approaches to the problem at different stages of his career, at all times showing an unusual sensitivity to the tension between formalist and metaphysical types of solution.

Fichte und seine Zeit

Kontext, Konfrontationen, Rezeptionen

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Edited by Matteo Vincenzo d'Alfonso, Carla De Pascale, Erich Fuchs and Marco Ivaldo

Mit dem Ausdruck „Fichte und seine Zeit“ können die letzten Jahre des 18. und das erste Jahrzehnt des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Völkerschlacht von 1813 überschrieben werden: die ertragreichsten Jahre im Schaffen und Wirken Fichtes. Fichte erarbeitete das System der Wissenschaftslehre keineswegs in Selbstisolierung und ohne Rücksicht auf die spekulativen Anregungen, die er von dem ihn prägenden geistigen und kulturellen Milieu erhielt. Die Jahre des Übergangs vom 18. zum 19. Jahrhundert sind auch diejenigen, in welche man die Geburt der ‚romantischen Bewegung‘ ansetzt, deren Vaterschaft man wohl Fichte zusprechen muss, obzwar er bald von vielen seiner Schülern verleugnet wurde. Diese Jahre machen zugleich einen entscheidenden Zeitabschnitt in der deutschen Geschichte aus, welcher große Veränderungen – sowohl in staatlich-institutioneller als auch in gesellschaftlicher Hinsicht – mit sich gebracht hat und der mit den Eroberungskriegen Napoleons zu Ende geht, welche eine Zäsur in der deutschen Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts bewirkt haben. Die Absicht vorliegenden Buches ist es, das Geflecht der unterschiedlichen Fragestellungen, die mit dem Stichwort „Fichte und seine Zeit“ verbunden sind, in Betracht zu nehmen und ihre internen Zusammenhänge und ihre Geschlossenheit deutlich zu machen. Das Ziel ist daher, nicht nur die einzelnen Themen in ihrem Entstehen, Aufblühen, Sich-Entfalten zu verfolgen, sondern näher zu verstehen, wie Fichtes Gedanke gerade dank dem intellektuellen und wissenschaftlichen Austausch und der Auseinandersetzung mit ‚seiner Zeit‘ bzw. seinen Zeitgenossen gereift und selbstbewusst geworden ist.

Die Beiträge stammen von Elena Alessiato (Greifswald/Turin), Marco Bazzan (Toulouse), Carla De Pascale (Bologna), , Faustino Fabbianelli (Parma), Luca Fonnesu (Pavia), Erich Fuchs (Eichenau/München), Jonas Gralle (Freiburg), Laurent Guyot (Toulouse), Tamás Hankovszky (Budapest), Silvan Imhof (Bern), Marco Ivaldo (Neapel), Jindřich Karàsek (Prag), Hans Georg von Manz (München), Monica Marchetto (Palermo), Hitoshi Minobe (Tokyo), Alessandro Novembre (Lecce), Ernst-Otto Onnasch (Utrecht), Francisco Prata Gaspar (São Paulo/München), Manuel Roy (Montréal), Irene Sacchi (Berlin), Stefan Schick (Pentling/Regensburg), Jürgen Stahl (Leipzig), Nobukuni Suzuki (Tokyo), Hartmut Traub (Mühlheim/Ruhr), Martin Vrabec (Hradec Kralove)


Immanenz & Einheit

Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Rolf Kühn

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Edited by Markus Enders

Auf der Grundlage des Werkes von Michel Henry untersuchen die in der Festschrift „Immanenz und Einheit“ gesammelten Beiträge das Verhältnis von Immanenz und Einheit unter allgemein systematischen und praktischen Gesichtspunkten. Dabei wird zunächst die Grundlegung dieses Verhältnisses in der abendländischen Metaphysik und in der Phänomenologie, insbesondere im philosophischen Denken Henrys, in den Blick genommen. Darauf aufbauend werden durch Vergleiche zwischen Henrys Philosophie einerseits und den Ansätzen Meister Eckharts, Fichtes, der christlichen Theologie und fernöstlicher Religionen andererseits religionsphilosophische Perspektiven dieses Verhältnisses aufgezeigt. Schließlich werden die ethischen Konsequenzen des Verhältnisses von Immanenz und Einheit analysiert und dessen existentiell-lebenspraktische Bedeutung herausgestellt. Daher bietet die Festschrift einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Verständnis des für die Philosophie Michel Henrys so bedeutenden Verhältnisses von Immanenz und Einheit.

Based on the oeuvre of Michel Henry, the contributions collected in the Festschrift „Immanenz und Einheit“ examine the relation between immanence and unity under general systematic and practical aspects. First, the foundation of this relation in occidental metaphysics and in phenomenology, especially in the thinking of Michel Henry, is analysed. Then, the view of Michel Henry is compared with those of Meister Eckhard, Fichte, Christian theology and eastern religions in order to develop the perspectives of this relation for the Philosophy of Religion. Furthermore, the consequences of the relation between immanence and unity for ethics and its existential significance are considered. Thus, the Festschrift offers a significant contribution to the understanding of the relationship between immanence and unity which is especially relevant for the thinking of Michel Henry.

The Vision of Gabriel Marcel

Epistemology, Human Person, the Transcendent

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Brendan Sweetman

This book illustrates the profound implications of Gabriel Marcel’s unique existentialist approach to epistemology not only for traditional themes in his work concerning ethics and the transcendent, but also for epistemological issues, concerning the objectivity of knowledge, the problem of skepticism, and the nature of non-conceptual knowledge, among others. There are also chapters of dialogue with philosophers, Jacques Maritain and Martin Buber. In focusing on these themes, the book makes a distinctive contribution to the literature on Marcel.

Holy Scriptures in Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Hermeneutics, Values and Society

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Edited by Hendrik M. Vroom and Jerald D. Gort

One of the prime issues that needs to be addressed in dialogical encounter between the three monotheistic faiths of the world is that concerning the authority and interpretation of Holy Writ, since Jews, Christians and Muslims alike consider their Scriptures to be divine revelation. It is incumbent upon each of these religions to apprise itself of the hermeneutical approach employed by the others in ascribing current meaning to ancient scriptural texts. This is not only important as a means for the enhancement of inter-religious understanding but is also of great interest to society at large. What role does the Jewish Bible, the Christian Bible, and the Qu'ran play in the thinking and the lives of contemporary Jews, Christians, and Muslims? How are these Holy Scriptures interpreted in terms of present-day circumstances? How much room do the three religions allow for bringing their basic messages and biblical-theological traditions into rapport with constantly changing social, political and economic conditions? Is the concept of hermeneutical space acceptable to these religions? If so, in what sense and at what level? Is it possible to identify the scopus of a text and then reconstitute it textually, as it were, in light of the social and ethical questions thrown up by new contextual developments? Can interpretive adjustments be made without jeopardizing the core message of the text involved? And do the three monotheistic religions stand open to one another for influence in this regard? Has one or another of them taken hermeneutical cues from the others? Is there room for mutual learning within the hermeneutical space mentioned above or is this a sacred space closed to all influence from other traditions? These are among the central questions raised and dealt with in this interreligious collection of essays, perhaps the only dialogical symposium to date to deal exclusively with the doctrine and hermeneutics of Holy Scripture in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Is the Quest for Meaning the Quest for God?

The Religious Ascription of Meaning in Relation to the Secular Ascription of Meaning: A Theological Study

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W. Stoker

Traditionally, religion was the supplier of meaning. It is often said that the quest for meaning is at bottom a quest for God, a quest that can only find an adequate answer in religion. But then what is the alternative for those who reject religion? Emptiness and meaninglessness, as Nietzsche succinctly formulated it: We have killed God. Are we not straying as through an infinite nothing?
In the meantime, non-believers have found a solution for the crisis in meaning. People are not (usually) nihilists but live their lives and consider them to be meaningful without religion.
This study is concerned with determining once again the place of the ascription of meaning from the perspective of the Christian faith in its relation to the non-religious ascription of meaning. For this purpose an analysis is given of contemporary theological and philosophical views of the problem of meaning. The crisis of meaning as it has arisen in Nietzsche and the theatre of the absurd is examined. Stoker also discusses contemporary forms of the ascription of meaning without religion such as self-actualization and functional rationality as sources of meaning.
Stoker rejects an 'apologetics of need'. He posits that the Christian faith does not have an exclusive right to the ascription of meaning, but this obtains also for secular forms of the ascription of meaning such as humanism. Is God then the 'ultimate concern' of each person? From the perspective of the Christian faith, yes, but this does not mean that the non-religious ascription of meaning as such must be viewed negatively. Stoker illustrates how the religious and the non-religious ascriptions of meaning are similar and how they differ. Both are intended to be the source of meaning for human questions of life and death. With respect to their differences the author demonstrates that the ascription of meaning from the perspective of the Christian faith does not entail a disqualification of a non-religious worldview but is intended to make people more human.