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Paul D. Mandel

In The Origins of Midrash : From Teaching to Text, Paul Mandel presents a comprehensive study of the words darash and midrash from the Bible until the early rabbinic periods (3rd century CE). In contrast to current understandings in which the words are identified with modes of analysis of the biblical text, Mandel claims that they refer to instruction in law and not to an interpretation of text.
Mandel traces the use of these words as they are associated with the scribe ( sofer), the doresh ha-torah in the Dead Sea scrolls, the “exegetes of the laws” in the writings of Josephus and the rabbinic “sage” ( ḥakham), showing the development of the uses of midrash as a form of instruction throughout these periods.

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Edited by Sidnie White Crawford and Cecilia Wassen

The Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and the Concept of a Library presents twelve articles by renowned experts in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran studies. These articles explore from various angles the question of whether or not the collection of manuscripts found in the eleven caves in the vicinity of Khirbet Qumran can be characterized as a “library,” and, if so, what the relation of that library is to the ruins of Qumran and the group of Jews that inhabited them. The essays fall into the following categories: the collection as a whole, subcollections within the overall corpus, and the implications of identifying the Qumran collection as a library.
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Hebrew of the Late Second Temple Period

Proceedings of a Sixth International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira

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Edited by Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar and Pierre van Hecke

The Hebrew of the Late Second Temple Period is directly attested in the Scrolls from Qumran and other manuscripts discovered in the Judaean Desert. Indirectly, it is also found in some manuscripts copied in later times, which still preserve linguistic elements of the Hebrew from the period in which the texts were authored. Often referred to as the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls or Qumran Hebrew, and positioned chronologically between Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew, its nature remains disputed. Some essays in this volume deal with linguistic and philological problems of this Late Second Temple Period Hebrew. Other papers discuss the nature and linguistic profile of the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
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Devorah Dimant and Donald Parry

Dead Sea Scrolls Handbook presents Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions of approximately 450 non-biblical texts from Qumran, arranged according to the sequential number of the composition and the Qumran Cave. Thus, the texts are arranged as follows: 1Q14, 1QpHab, 1Q15, 1Q16, 1Q17, and so forth. This arrangement provides straightforward access to the texts in a single volume and facilitates usage of the Handbook. The Handbook’s texts, derived from the works of competent and accomplished Qumran scholars, represent significant contributions to Qumran studies.
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The Language Environment of First Century Judaea

Jerusalem Studies in the Synoptic Gospels—Volume Two

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Edited by Randall Buth and R.Steven Notley

The articles in this collection demonstrate that a change is taking place in New Testament studies. Throughout the twentieth century, New Testament scholarship primarily worked under the assumption that only two languages, Aramaic and Greek, were in common use in the land of Israel in the first century. The current contributors investigate various areas where increasing linguistic data and changing perspectives have moved Hebrew out of a restricted, marginal status within first-century language use and the impact on New Testament studies. Five articles relate to the general sociolinguistic situation in the land of Israel during the first century, while three articles present literary studies that interact with the language background. The final three contributions demonstrate the impact this new understanding has on the reading of Gospel texts.