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Valérie Wyssbrod

The Exploitation of Marine Genetic Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction by Valérie Wyssbrod begins by identifying the legal regime applicable to these underexploited resources which offer vast potential for the development of new drugs, bioplastics, depolluting products and other innovations. The author then outlines provisions for a new treaty, currently under discussion at the UN and presents alternatives to a new regime including revised legal instruments, the development of soft law and the creation of an applicable ecolabel.

Dans L’exploitation des ressources génétiques marine hors juridiction nationale, Valérie Wyssbrod détermine en premier lieu le régime juridique actuellement applicable à ces ressources. Ces dernières représentent à l’heure actuelle un potentiel énorme pour le développement de nouveaux médicaments, bioplastiques, dépolluants, etc. Encore peu exploitées, elles seront sans aucun doute au coeur d’un futur processus d’innovation et de nouveaux brevets. Dans un second temps, l’auteur dessine les contours et les principaux axes d’un nouveau traité spécifique, projet actuellement discuté à l’ONU. Valérie Wyssbrod explore finalement trois alternatives au nouveau traité : le remplacement du régime actuel par un autre régime existant, le développement d’un instrument de soft law et la création d’un écolabel.

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Patrick Blannin

One of the most dominant security issues of the twenty-first century has been the US led battle against transnational terrorism – the aptly named Long War. Over the past fifteen years the Long War has been examined using multiple perspectives. However, one central mechanism is missing in current Long War analyses: defence diplomacy. Defence diplomacy enhances the diplomatic and security capacity of a state, providing the only link between executive office and the ministries of foreign affairs and defence, two vital institutions in the Long War. Using a case study of US defence diplomacy in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014, the paper argues simply that the practice of defence diplomacy far outweighs current theories on what it is, how it works and why it matters. The paper aims to generate a more nuanced understanding of defence diplomacy, as well as identify it as a key component of the US CT/COIN strategy to achieve their Long War policy objectives.
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Imago Decidendi

On the Common Law of Images

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Peter Goodrich

Taking as its exemplum the use of images in judicial decisions, this article argues that the ratio decidendi of legal precedent should be supplemented with the imago decidendi, the figure or depiction that motivates judgment. Drawing upon the history of legal humanism, and particularly the tradition of juristic emblems, it is argued that an adequate understanding of case law rules and decisions requires attention to the imagery that conceives and propels the reasoned deliberation that follows. To adequately apprehend the transmission of law in a digital age requires acknowledging that images think differently, that the ambulation of the eye in the image is very different to the linear glance of the text.
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Intellectual Property Regime Evolution in China and India

Technological, Political and Social Drivers of Change

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Paul Irwin Crookes

What is behind the changing attitudes towards intellectual property in India and China? This exploration of empirically-based research comparisons on the character of intellectual property systems found in these two countries, offers answers to three key questions: what are the drivers that have moved them towards a closer embrace of IP norms, how have domestic and systemic influences shaped the character of this embrace, and how have state and non-state actors interacted within the international system to promote this transformation? Focusing on the software and IT services industries, it illuminates the policy drivers that have influenced IP regime adoption, and helps our understanding the process by providing a clear framework of distinctive phases of technological, political and social development.
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Property Rights, Indigenous People and the Developing World

Issues from Aboriginal Entitlement to Intellectual Ownership Rights

David Lea

This work offers an analysis of the Western formal system of private property and its moral justification and explains the relevance of the institution to particular current issues that face aboriginal peoples and the developing world. The subjects under study include broadly: aboriginal land claims; third world development; intellectual property rights and the relatively recent TRIPs agreement (Trade related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights). Within these broad areas we highlight the following concerns: the maintenance of cultural integrity; group autonomy; economic benefit; access to health care; biodiversity; biopiracy and even the independence of the recently emerged third world nation states. Despite certain apparent advantages from embracing the Western institution of private ownership, the text explains that the Western institution of private property is undergoing a fundamental redefinition through the expansion
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Mpasi Sinjela

This collection offers an overview of the issues involved concerning the interface between human rights and intellectual property rights (IPRs). It makes clear that two schools of thought have developed. The first school maintains that human rights and IPRs are in fundamental conflict. Strong protection of IP is incompatible with human rights obligations. Thus, for resolving the conflict between the two, it is suggested that human rights should always prevail over IPRs. Whereas the second school of thought asserts that human rights and IPRs pursue the same aim; that is to define the appropriate scope of private monopoly power to create incentives for authors and inventors, while ensuring that the public has adequate access to the fruits of their efforts. Accordingly, they argue, human rights and IP are compatible. However, what is needed is to strike a balance between the provision of incentives to innovate and public access to products of that innovation. This collection explores this balance and the extent to which human rights standards can influence the interpretation of IP norms, for example in defining the scope of IPRs. The discussion on the relationship of human rights and IPRs is an ongoing one; this volume makes a valuable contribution to the debate and will further stimulate the interest to explore and address these complex and challenging issues. This is the second volume in The Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law ‘New Authors’ series, which contains the best theses from the human rights masters programmes in Lund and Venice.
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The Right to Food and the TRIPS Agreement

With a Particular Emphasis on Developing Countries' Measures for Food Production and Distribution

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Hans Morten Haugen

A concise analysis of the relationship between patent rights and human rights is given in this book, focusing on the right to food. The UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights identified ‘apparent conflicts’ or ‘actual or potential conflicts’ between human rights and intellectual property rights. The TRIPS Agreement under the WTO Agreement and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights constitute the central treaties in the analysis. The book finds that the right to food and related human rights of the Covenant give important guidance when implementing intellectual property legislation and science policy in general. Moreover, the book does not find that the two treaties actually conflict. There are, however, concerns regarding the national implementation of the treaties.
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Edited by Eugen Ulmer and Gerhard Schricker

Volume XIV of the International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law deals with Copyright. It is edited by Eugen Ulmer, Professor, Director (em.), Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law, Munich (Germany) and Gerhard Schricker, Professor, Director (em.), Max-Planck-Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law, Munich (Germany).
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Towards a European Unfair Competition Law

A Clash Between Legal Families

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Rogier de Vrey

The main aim of this book is to discuss the state of unfair competition law in the European Union. In this respect, the various efforts that have been made in the past to come to harmonization of this area of law and the reasons that they were only partially successful are reviewed. In addition, the International and European regulations that refer to unfair competition, like, e.g., the Paris Convention, the TRIPs and the recent 2004 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive are discussed. Also an overview is given of the unfair competition laws in the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands with respect to the ‘problem-areas’ of slavish imitation, misleading advertising, denigrating one’s competitor, trade secrets and finally, misappropriation of valuable trade assets.

Unfair competition law is traditionally considered part of intellectual property law. Not only the relation of unfair competition law to intellectual property laws are therefore part of the discussion but also the areas of consumer protection law (since unfair competition law is partly orientated towards consumer protection) and competition (as an economic concept) is the topic of thorough review.
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Megumi Ogawa

This book deals with a highly topical area: the protection of broadcasters’ rights. It is an area in which the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has been working to draft a new treaty and has now reached the final stage for conclusion of the treaty.
The author analyses the formation and subsequent development of the legislation for protecting broadcasters’ rights, and discusses the current legal issues arising out of current proposals at the international and domestic levels to upgrade that protection. The focus of the work is the international protection of broadcasters’ rights as well as in the two jurisdictions which are representative of the two-different approaches to protection: Australia and Japan. This volume provides a detailed account of the relevant international treaties and conventions as well as domestic legislation, and provides insightful arguments that present the optimal approach of the future protection of broadcasters’ rights.

'This book is an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the issues relating to the protection of broadcasters' rights. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of the protection of broadcasters' rights based on the differing approaches adopted by the common law and civil law systems'.
From the foreword by The Honourable Sir Anthony Mason AC KBE CBE.