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This volume offers new insight into key developments in the history of protection for patent rights during the period 1791-1883. The author, Dr Louise J. Duncan, presents a detailed examination of the underlying theoretical bases advanced for the protection of patents in various key European countries, and including new material focusing on the political rhetoric of protagonists and opponents of the patent system during the course of the patent abolitionist debates of the 1860s and 1870s. Finally, the book examines in detail the factors which prompted the movement towards international protection of patents, culminating in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of 1883.
Author: Ardeshir Atai
Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Iran has implemented Sharia-compliant banking and finance which makes it one of the few countries that has adopted Islamic banking. The post-war liberalization and privatization of the economy and subsequent deregulation had paved the ground for emergence of private banks and financial institutions which had been subject to strict government control and ownership of banks. Further reform of the banking sector included authorization for the establishment and operations of foreign-owned banks in Iran and ratification of international treaties for the reciprocal protection and promotion of capital investments. The most recent government reform plan concerning adoption of a comprehensive banking law aims to create a single regulator for the prudential regulation and supervision of banks and financial institutions. The implementation of the aforesaid banking reform will be instrumental for achieving a sound and safe banking system and restoring investor confidence in the Iranian banking and money markets.
This series critically examines issues of legal doctrine and practice in Central and Eastern Europe, including studies on the harmonization of legal principles and rules; the legal impact of the intertwining of domestic economies, on the one hand, with regional economies and the processes of international trade and investment on the other. The series offers a forum for discussion of topical questions of public and private law from domestic, regional, and international perspectives. Comparative research that provides insights in legal developments that can be communicated to those interested in questions, not only of law, but also of politics, economics, and of society of countries in the region also finds a home in the series.

For information about a related title, visit the webpages of the Brill journal Review of Central and East European Law.
Enabling the victims of international crimes to obtain reparation is crucial to fighting impunity. In Universal Civil Jurisdiction – Which Way Forward? experts of public and private international law discuss one of the key challenges that victims face, namely access to justice. Civil courts in the country where the crime was committed may be biased, or otherwise unwilling or unable to hear the case. Are the courts of other countries permitted, or required, to rule on the victim’s claim? Trends at the international and the domestic level after the Naït-Liman judgment of the European Court of Human Rights offer a nuanced answer, suggesting that civil jurisdiction is not only concerned with sovereignty, but is also a tool for the governance of global problems.
In recent years, the tendency has been to settle international disputes by informal methods. Among those methods conciliation has seen a successful revival, after many years of decline, in the case of Timor Leste v. Australia while inter-State complaint proceedings under the UN-sponsored human rights treaties have unexpectedly reached their merits stage of conciliation. The present book takes stock of these developments by portraying, at the same time, the potential of the OSCE Court of Conciliation and Arbitration which still remains to be fully activated. Additionally, the contributions reach out to geographical areas in Africa and Asia. An analysis of the relevant procedural mechanisms completes the study to which 14 authors from nine different countries have contributed.

See inside the book.
Author: Mo Zhang
Chinese Contract Law (2nd Ed) offers an in-depth analysis of the contract making process, performance and remedies in the legal framework established under the current regulatory scheme governing contracts in China. The book discusses various contract issues from theoretic and practical viewpoints, and addresses major contractual matters in a comparative way. It examines the law of contracts as drafted, interpreted and applied with Chinese characteristics.

The second edition comprises the latest developments in contract legislation, adjudication and practices in China, including the newly adopted laws, judicial interpretations and guiding cases. It emphasizes contextual distinctions and transactional considerations relevant to contract research and practice. The book provides a meaningful tool to get inside the contemporary contract law of China.
Reviewing Grounds for Refusal from the Classic Paradigm to Mutual Recognition and Beyond
In Extradition Law, Miguel João Costa offers not only an exhaustive review of this legal area and of transnational criminal law more generally, but also innovative solutions for their reform.
The book critically analyses numerous themes – from international cooperation in criminal matters to substantive criminal law and procedure, from human rights to nationality and refugee law, from public to private international law – at the national, European and global levels. Moreover, while it is a fundamentally normative study, it does not disregard the political and diplomatic dimensions of extradition either.
The result is a new model based on mutual respect, enabling States to increase cooporation whilst preserving the integrity of their own criminal justice values and enhancing the respect for human rights.
In Performance Requirement Prohibitions in International Investment Law, Alexandre Genest explores the prohibition of performance requirements in investment treaties. The author focuses on answering two questions: first, how do States prohibit performance requirements in investment treaties? And second, how should such prohibitions of performance requirements be interpreted and applied?
In providing answers to these questions, Alexandre Genest breaks new ground by proposing the first empirical typology of performance requirement prohibitions in investment treaties and the first in-depth analysis of arbitral awards on the subject.
Alexandre Genest formulates insightful remarks for a more deliberate and informed interpretation and application of existing performance requirement prohibitions. These remarks will help improve the drafting of performance requirement prohibitions in future investment treaties.