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In this book, Richard Campbell reformulates Anselm’s proof to show that factual evidence confirmed by modern cosmology validly implies that God exists. Anselm’s proof, which was never the “ontological argument” attributed to him, emerges as engaging with current philosophical issues concerning existence and scientific explanation.

Because every observable thing has a beginning, it can be deduced that there is always in reality something than which a greater cannot be thought, which exists necessarily. It follows that its non-existence is inconceivable. Anselm then proves that this is the God in whom he believes, who alone so truly exists that He could not be thought not to exist. The contingent nature of the universe is therefore a consequence of the proven belief that God is the Creator of everything else.
Permitting and Forbidding Open-Inquiry in 12-15th Century Europe and North Africa
Author: Yehuda Halper
Yehuda Halper examines Jewish depictions of Socrates and Socratic questioning of the divine among European and North African Jews of the 12th-15th centuries. Without direct access to Plato, their understanding of Socrates is indirect, based on legendary material, on fragmentary quotations from Plato, or on Aristotle. Out of these sources, Jewish authors of this period formed two distinct views of Socrates: one as a wise, ascetic, monotheist, and the other as a vocal skeptic. The latter view has its roots in Plato's Apology where Socrates describes his divine mandate to question all knowledge, including knowledge of the divine. After exploring how this and similar questions arise in the works of Judah Halevi and the Hebrew Averroes, Halper traces how such open-questioning of the divine arises in the works of Maimonides, Jacob Anatoli, Gersonides, and Abraham Bibago.
Author: Irene Binini
This book offers a major reassessment of Peter Abelard’s modal logic and theory of modalities, presenting them as far more uniform and consistent than was until now recognized. Binini offers find new ways of connecting Abelard’s modal views with other parts of his logic, semantics, metaphysics and theology.
Further, the work also provides a comprehensive study of the logical context in which Abelard’s theories originated and developed, by presenting fresh evidence about many 11th and 12th-century sources that are still unpublished. This analysis sheds new light on the relations between Abelard and ancient authors such as Aristotle, Boethius, and Priscian, as well as between Abelard and his contemporaries, such as Anselm of Canterbury, William of Champeaux, Joscelin of Soissons, and Alberic of Paris.
Berthold of Moosburg’s Expositio on Proclus’ Elements of Theology
Editors: Dragos Calma and Evan King
This is the first volume exclusively devoted to the Expositio by Berthold of Moosburg (c.1295-c.1361) on Proclus’ Elements of Theology. The breadth of its vision surpasses every other known commentary on the Elements of Theology, for it seeks to present a coherent account of the Platonic tradition as such (unified through the concord of Proclus and Dionysius) and at the same time to consolidate and transform a legacy of metaphysics developed in the German-speaking lands by Peripatetic authors (like Albert the Great, Ulrich of Strassburg, and Dietrich of Freiberg). This volume aims to provide a basis for further research and discussion of this unduly overlooked commentary, whose historical-philosophical importance as an attempt to refound Western metaphysics is beginning to be recognized.

The publication of this volume has received the generous support of the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme through the ERC Consolidator Grant NeoplAT: A Comparative Analysis of the Middle East, Byzantium and the Latin West (9th-16th Centuries), grant agreement No 771640 (
Reason and Desire in the Monastic Theology of Anselm of Canterbury
Author: John Bayer
Interpretations of Anselm’s Proslogion range between the extremes of ‘rationalism’ and ‘fideism’ because of the challenge of unifying its philosophical and devotional aspects. In this book, Bayer argues that a ‘monastic interpretation’ – or an interpretation that takes seriously the intellectual significance of our existential commitments – offers a powerful compromise.

Through an extensive study of Anselm’s spiritualty, especially as it is manifested in his letters and homiletic works, coupled with a profound study of Anselm’s philosophy of language in the De grammatico and Monologion, Bayer aims to reveal the Anselmian unity of life and thought, and thereby also the harmony between faith and reason. In this way, he defends the Proslogion as a unified and probative argument.
Der Band untersucht erstmals die gesamteuropäische Rezeption des für die mittelalterliche Literatur einschlägigen Autors Alanus ab Insulis.
Die Beiträge aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen (u.a. Latinistik, Germanistik, Romanistik, Anglistik, Philosophiegeschichte) untersuchen die intellektuellen Auseinandersetzungen mit Alanus im gelehrten Milieu, das Verhältnis von Alanus’ allegorisch-literarischen Werken und mittelalterlichen ‚Klassikern‘ wie Jean de Meun, Dante und Chaucer sowie die Ausstrahlung von Alanus’ Werken in den deutschsprachigen Raum (Frauenlob; Heinrich von Mügeln). Beiträge u.a. von P. Adamson (München), F. Bezner (Freiburg), Th. Haye (Göttingen), D. Hult (Berkeley), A. Kablitz (Köln), B. Kellner (München), N. Largier (Berkeley), J. Simpson (Harvard), A. Volfing (Oxford).
This volume explores the work of Anselm of Canterbury, theologian and archbishop, in light of the communities in which he participated. Featuring thirteen essays from leading historians, theologians, and literary scholars, the collection ranges from Anselm’s immediate contemporaries to the reception of his work, and formation of his posthumous reputation, by later medieval readers.

Individual essays consider the role of friendships in his career, his relations with students, correspondence with women, interventions in the political sphere, and influence as leader of the monastic communities at Bec and Canterbury. Together, these essays present a new profile of the archbishop, revealing an individual whose work emerged from a vibrant culture of debate, criticism, and collaboration.

Contributors are: Giles E. M. Gasper, Bernard van Vreeswijk, David Whidden, Hiroko Yamazaki, Bernd Goebel, Thomas Barrows, Hollie Devanney, Stephanie Britton, Sally Vaughn, George Younge, Christian Brouwer, Daniel Coman, Margaret Healy-Varley, and Severin Kitanov.
Author: Daniel Nodes
The sermons here published for the first time are attributed to an otherwise unknown friar referred to simply as Frater Petrus. The collection provides evidence of actual preaching in a normal setting from fourteenth-century Germany, between the beginnings of the Franciscan order and the Observant reform movement, not by a major light of the order, but a regular member who may have held status as an intermediate-level teacher, to judge by the care with which the manuscripts were prepared. Theologically competent and gracefully presented in the conventional sermon style of the period, the collection, edited and translated by Daniel Nodes, offers scholars and students a reliable new resource in an area of sermon studies that is still in short supply.

"This volume of sixty-three sermons will shed valuable light on preaching method and style of a Franciscan friar in a normal setting of the pre-Observant fourteenth century. Daniel Nodes’s careful Latin edition with clear English translation enables readers to penetrate more deeply into biblical interpretation and instruction during the High Middle Ages."
Nigel F. Palmer, Emeritus Professor of Medieval German, St Edmund Hall, Oxford

"In the later Middle Ages, the friars created a system of mass communication based on collections of Latin model sermons which could be turned into the vernacular for lay congregations anywhere. Examples of these model sermons in critical editions are rare and critical editions accompanied by translations to which a good student can be directed are almost non-existent. Dan Nodes earns the gratitude of scholars and teachers of medieval religious history by filling this glaring gap."
D. L. d’Avray, Emeritus Professor of History, UCL
Author: Evan King
This study examines the motivations and doctrinal coherence of the Commentary on the Elements of Theology of Proclus written by Berthold of Moosburg, O.P. († c. 1361/1363). It provides an overview of Berthold’s biography and intellectual contexts, his manuscript remains, and a partial edition of his annotations on Macrobius and Proclus. Through a close analysis of the three prefaces to the Commentary, giving special attention to Berthold’s sources, it traces the Dominican's elaboration of Platonism as a soteriological science. The content of this science is then presented in a systematic reconstruction of Berthold’s cosmology and anthropology. The volume includes an English translation of the three fundamental prefaces of the Commentary.

The publication of this volume has received the generous support of the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme through the ERC Consolidator Grant NeoplAT: A Comparative Analysis of the Middle East, Byzantium and the Latin West (9th-16th Centuries), grant agreement No 771640 (
In this book, Valérie Cordonier and Tommaso De Robertis provide the first study, along with edition and translation, of Chrysostomus Javelli’s epitome of the Liber de bona fortuna (1531), the famous thirteenth-century Latin compilation of the chapters on fortune taken from Aristotle’s Magna Moralia and Eudemian Ethics. An Italian university professor and a prominent figure in the intellectual landscape of sixteenth-century Europe, Javelli (ca. 1470-ca. 1542) commented on nearly the entirety of Aristotle’s corpus. His epitome of the Liber de bona fortuna, the only known Renaissance reading produced on this work, offers an unparalleled insight into the early modern understanding of fortune, standing out as one of the most comprehensive witnesses to discussions on fate, fortune, and free will in the Western world.