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Aufgrund der kirchlichen und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen in den letzten Jahren stehen das Kirchen- und das Religionsrecht vor großen Herausforderungen und Modifikationen. Die Herausgeber haben daher ein neues Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht erarbeitet, dessen Ziel es ist, den Nutzern fundierte Orientierung und Informationen auf dem neuesten Stand der Forschung zum geschichtlich gewachsenen, geltenden eigenen Recht der Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften und zu deren rechtlichen Verhältnissen zum Staat zu liefern.

Das Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht (LKRR) erscheint in vier Bänden, print und online in deutscher Sprache, und bietet in über 2,600 Lemmata bzw. Stichworte zuverlässige und prägnante Informationen zu den grundlegenden Fragen des internen Rechts von Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften und des Religionsrechts.

Neben Fragen des staatlichen Rechts und des Kirchenrechts der katholischen und der evangelischen Kirche werden auch zentrale Inhalte des Kirchenrechts der orthodoxen Kirchen sowie des Rechts des Judentums und des Islams behandelt. Das Lexikon ist einer interreligiösen und ökumenischen Perspektive verpflichtet und eröffnet dem Anwender die Möglichkeit, die verschiedenen Rechtsbereiche zu vergleichen. Die Mitarbeit von namhaften Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern des staatlichen Rechts, des Religionsrechts sowie des katholischen, evangelischen, orthodoxen, jüdischen und islamischen Rechts garantiert fundierte und kompetente Informationen. Das Lexikon ist sowohl für Theologen als auch für Juristen im Studium, in der Wissenschaft, in der staatlichen und kirchlichen Verwaltung sowie in der Seelsorge und beruflichen Praxis eine verlässliche und unerlässliche Informationsquelle.

Due to the ecclesiastical and social changes in recent years, church and religious law face major challenges and modifications. The editors have therefore developed a new encyclopedia for church and religious law. It is supposed to provide users with well-founded orientation and information on the latest state of research on the historically evolved, valid own law of the churches and religious communities and their legal relations to the state.

The Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht (LKRR) is published in four volumes, print and online in German, and offers reliable and concise information in over 2,600 lemmas or keywords on the fundamental questions of the internal law of churches and religious communities and of religious law.

In addition to questions of state law and ecclesiastical law of the Catholic and Protestant Churches, central contents of the ecclesiastical law of the Orthodox Churches as well as the law of Judaism and Islam are dealt with. The encyclopedia is committed to an interreligious and ecumenical perspective and offers the user the opportunity to compare the different areas of law. The collaboration of reputable scholars of state law, religious law and Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Jewish and Islamic law guarantees well-founded and qualified information. The encyclopedia is a reliable and essential source of information for both theologians and lawyers in their academic studies, in science, in civil and ecclesiastical administration, as well as in pastoral counselling and professional practice.

This reference work is also available as a four volume print publication. The first volume (A-E) is available here.
This collection consists of 267 printed works by and on the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), published between 1609-1941, that are kept at the Peace Palace Library in The Hague. 205 of these titles have been published on microfiche before in the collections on international law and jurisprudence. 18 more titles have been digitized from microfiche, that have not been published before. 44 more titles have been newly scanned and added to this online collection. Including one of only three known copies of the rare first state of the first edition of De Iure Belli ac Pacis, purchased in 2012 by the Peace Palace Library. The result is an indispensable source of information covering a wide range of disciplines. From law, jurisprudence and diplomacy to philosophy, history and theology. This collection enables scholars to examine the work of Hugo Grotius, quickly and efficiently online.
The titles in this collection can be divided into a few subject categories and are written in several languages.

Subject categories
Écritures: Works on Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
History: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
International Law: Works on Hugo Grotius - 165 titles
Jurisprudence: Works by Hugo Grotius - 84 titles
Poesie: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
Theology: Works on Hugo Grotius - 11 titles
[no subject] - 1 title

Dutch - 88 titles
English - 33 titles
French - 19 titles
German - 13 titles
Italian - 3 titles
Latin - 108 titles
Polish - 1 title
Spanish - 1 title
various languages - 1 title

The collection at the Peace Palace
In 1914, the Hague publisher Martinus Nijhoff donated to the recently established library of the Peace Palace a collection comprising 55 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis ( On the Law of War and Peace), the most famous work by the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645). The Nijhoff collection comprised editions in Latin, the original language of the publication, as well as in French, English, German and Dutch. Imprints ranged from 1625 to 1901.

De Iure Belli ac Pacis
The gift from Nijhoff was singularly appropriate because De Iure Belli ac Pacis is a milestone in the history of international law. In this work, Grotius lays out his doctrine of natural law as the basis for the justifiable war. For a long period, De Iure Belli ac Pacis was granted such high significance that its author was regarded as the father of international law. The work aroused much interest at the very beginning of the period between the two World Wars because the conviction gained ground that Grotius's body of thought could provide an answer to the question of how to clear away the violence of war and cultivate a lasting peace.

Largest collection in the world
Using the gift from Nijhoff as foundation, subsequent librarians of the Peace Palace have strived to expand the collection: many other works of Grotius were added, or obtained in photocopy-form from other libraries, with the aim of bringing together as complete a corpus as possible. The Grotius Collection at the Peace Palace Library holds approximately 200 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis (in all languages imaginable), and 100 other legal works including Mare Liberum and Inleidinghe tot de Hollandsche Rechts-geleerheid, as well as Grotius’ contributions to history, theology, philology, and poetry – a total of more than 1200 volumes spanning 50 meters of shelves. The collection of Grotiana in the library of the Peace Palace is the largest anywhere in the world.

Jacob ter Meulen
Hence, the Peace Palace can function as a home for research into the life and work of Hugo Grotius. In this respect, Jacob ter Meulen is worthy of special mention. Ter Meulen, librarian at the Peace Palace from 1924 until 1952, has been of immeasurable service to the field of Grotius research. Following years of intensive bibliographical investigation, in 1950 he published, together with his colleague P.J.J. Diermanse, the Bibliographie des écrits imprimés de Hugo Grotius (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), which contains an exhaustive description of every known edition of Grotius's works. The book, known by Grotius specialists simply as TMD, is an indispensable work of reference for any serious researcher into the life and work of Grotius. In 1961, Ter Meulen and Diermanse published another edition of Bibliographie des écrits sur Hugo Grotius, imprimés a u XVII siècle (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), a bibliography that includes all minor seventeenth century literature devoted to Hugo Grotius. Both bibliographies were used as a frame of reference for this online collection.

For an overview of more Brill publications on Grotius, please click here.
The Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra
Theology and Society Online is the full-text searchable version of the English translation of Professor Josef van Ess’s monumental study of Islamic intellectual and religious history, focusing on Muslim theology. With its emphasis on the eighth and ninth centuries CE, Theology and Society remains the most detailed study of scholarly networks and interrelations for the early phase of the formation of Islam. Originally published in German between 1991 and 1995, Theology and Society is a monument of scholarship and a unique scholarly enterprise which has stood the test of the time as an unparalleled reference work.
The Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online is an essential resource for analyzing Europe's dynamic Muslim populations. Featuring up-to-date research from more than 40 European countries, this comprehensive reference work summarizes significant activities, trends and developments affecting Europe's Muslim populations. The Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online is updated annually with the most current information available from surveyed countries. The updates consist of annual overviews of statistical and demographic data, topical issues of public debate, shifting transnational networks, changes in domestic and legal policies, and major activities in Muslim organizations and institutions.

In addition to offering a relevant framework for original research, the Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online provides an invaluable source of reference for government and NGO officials, journalists, policy-makers, and related research institutions.

Features & Benefits of the online version:
- Full-text key word search across all years and countries
- Country overview: click on a country to find the analysis per year for that country
- Year overview: click on a year to find the analysis per country for that year
- Complete collection: covers Volumes 1-10. One new volume added every year

Customers should be aware that volumes 1-7 of the Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online are also available as part of Brill's Middle East and Islamic Studies E-Book Collections. These E-Books do not feature the additional functionalities featured in the Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online. Volumes 8 and onwards are not available as e-books, but only appear in the Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online. For the print version, please visit
The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas
At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament has proven to be a valuable resource for scholars and students. In this online edition the complete vocabulary of the Hebrew Bible, including texts in Aramaic, is available. The dictionary combines scholarly thoroughness with easy accessibility, and so meets the needs of a wide range of users.

The enormous advances that have taken place in the field of Semitic linguistics since the days of the older dictionaries of Classical Hebrew are well documented and assessed, as well as the often detailed discussions in modern Bible commentaries of words where the meaning is particularly difficult. The alphabetical ordering of entries rather than the traditional arrangement of words according to their roots is particularly helpful to the new student, and also saves the advanced user much time.
English text below

Kunden, die die gedruckte Version des LGB2 bezogen haben, zahlen 1.866 Euro statt 3.732.

Die Zielsetzung des «Lexikons des gesamten Buchwesens» ist es, das gesamte Wissen vom Buch, verstanden als die graphische Materialisierung geistiger Inhalte mit dem Ziel ihrer Erhaltung, Überlieferung und Verbreitung in der Gesellschaft, in wissenschaftlich zuverlässiger und exakter Weise in einer alphabetisch-lexikalischen Ordnung darzubieten.

Erfasst werden alle Personen, Institutionen, Fakten, Faktoren und Verfahren, die bei der Vermittlung geistiger Inhalte zwischen Autor und Leser durch das Medium Buch eine Rolle spielen. Der inhaltliche Rahmen des Lexikons umfasst die Bereiche der Produktion, Distribution und Rezeption des Buches. Berücksichtigt werden ebenfalls Teilbereiche jener Disziplinen, die insbesondere für die mit dem Buch beruflich Verbundenen, das heißt Bibliographen, Bibliothekare, Buchhändler und Verleger, aber auch für Bibliophile und Büchersammler von Bedeutung sein könnten. Hierzu gehören beispielsweise Elemente der Archivistik, Diplomatik, Kartographie, Literatur- und Sprachwissenschaft, des Zeitschriften und Pressewesens, sowie der Dokumentation und Information, der Datenverarbeitung und Medienkunde. Hierbei sind geographische Gesichtspunkte keine Selektionskriterien, jedoch liegen die Akzente auf dem europäischen, insbesondere dem deutschsprachigen Bereich.

Die einzelnen Artikel werden durch weiterführende Literaturangaben bereichert und durch Abbildungen, Tabellen und Karten ergänzt.

Die elektronische Fassung des Lexikons enthält rund 21.000 Eintragungen, verfasst von ca. 400 Autoren. Sie basiert auf der zweiten, völlig neu bearbeiteten Auflage des LGB (9 Bde; Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1987-2016).

English text

Special discount
Customers who have bought the print edition of LGB2 from Hiersemann Verlag pay 1.866 euro instead of 3.732 euro.

The aim of the Lexikons des gesamten Buchwesens (“Dictionary of the Book”) is to render the complete knowledge about the book in an academically reliable and exact manner, in alphabetical order. The book is understood as the graphical presentation of intellectual content with the aim of the preservation, transmission and dissemination of this content in society. All persons, institutions, facts, factors and procedures that play a role in the mediation of intellectual content between the author and the reader through the medium of the book are recorded. The dictionary covers everything from the production and distribution to the reception of the book. It also takes into account certain areas that are of particular importance to those working with books professionally, such as bibliographers, librarians, booksellers and publishers, but also for book collectors and bibliophiles. These include, for example, elements of archival studies, diplomacy, cartography, literature and linguistics, the press, epistemology, data processing and media studies. Geographical limitations do not play a role, yet the emphasis is on European, especially the German-speaking countries.

Each individual entry includes ends with a list of further reading and often includes illustrations, tables or maps.

The electronic edition contains about 21,000 entries, written by ca. 400 authors. It is based on the second, completely revised edition of the LGB (9 vols., Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1987-2016).
Prize Papers Online 3 contains approximately 4,000 interrogations of members of the crew of ships taken during the First, Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (ca. 1652-1674) and the War of the Spanish Succession (ca. 1701-1733). It shows images of each interrogation (of two, three, sometimes even six or more pages). Answers to the fourteen most researched questions are transcribed and stored in a searchable database.

The Anglo-Dutch Wars (First: 1652-1654; Second: 1665-1667; Third: 1672-1674) were a series of wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes. The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784) is part of PPO 1.

This collection is part of Prize Papers Online (PPO).
Codices Hugeniani Online (COHU) offers the fully digitized archive of Christiaan Huygens (1629 - 1695), held at Leiden University Library. The archive includes notebooks and loose leafs with texts in the field of astronomy, mechanics, mathematics and music, as well as correspondence and annotated books.

Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist. He published major studies on mechanics and optics, and a pioneer work on games of chance. He is famous for his discovery of the rings of Saturn and its moon Titan, and for inventing the pendulum clock.

Shortly before his death in 1695 Huygens bequeathed a large part of his scholarly papers to Leiden University Library. After 1800, the legacy was further enriched by manuscripts and letters from family property, amongst others a large number of letters from Huygens' father Constantijn (1596 - 1687).

For over three centuries, many scholars have made the Codices Hugeniani the object of their research. The contents of the archive have been made partly accessible through the well-known Oeuvres complètes (a 19-volume 19th Century reference work). More recently, the Codices Hugeniani were described in detail by Dr. Joella Yoder in her Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Christiaan Huygens (Brill, 2013). With COHU the full archive's contents are now easily accessible for the first time.

Features and benefits

Sections COHU is logically organized in the same way as the original archive, i.e. 52 codices as main entrances, enabling an overview of the archive as a whole.

Advanced search options In each codex the scans are offered in smaller groupings ranging from 1 to several dozen folios each. These groupings are all described with detailed metadata. This offers the possibility of an advanced search for specific topics, etc.

Rich metadata
For a large part the metadata are taken from Joella Yoder’s catalogue. This is the most authoritative overview and the outcome of 20+ years of hard work. The book contains valuable information about the archive that is not in the Leiden University Library's catalogue.

Direct link between famous Oeuvres complètesand archive
The COHU metadata offer a concordance between the physical archive and the Oeuvres complètes.
Jesuit Historiography Online (JHO) is an Open Access resource offering over seventy historiographical essays written by experts. Aimed at scholars of Jesuit history as well as the many disciplines with which it intersects, each essay in JHO provides a summary of key texts from the earlier literature, a painstaking survey of more recent work, and a digest of archival and online resources. Crucially, each essay covers both Anglophone and non-Anglophone works and devotes attention to scholarship from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, making this survey truly global in scope. The essays represent much more than a bibliographical check-list; authors explore trends in Jesuit historiography and provide a nuanced, systematic, and in-depth analysis of what has been written—when, why, and by whom—about arguably the most significant religious order within the Roman Catholic tradition.

JHO is available in Open Access thanks to generous support of the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies at Boston College.