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Der Band veranschaulicht in 13 systematisch angelegten Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen,wie sehr Robert Walsers Schreiben von vaszillierenden Erscheinungsformen des Ambivalenten geprägt ist. Er bildet ein besonderes Kompendium zu seinem Werk und soll außerdem zu einem differenzierten Verständnis eines kulturwissenschaftlich zentralen Begriffs beitragen.
Schon Walter Benjamin erkannte bei Robert Walser den produktiven Widerspruch von »Geschwätzigkeit« und »Sprachscham« und dass »jeder Satz nur die Aufgabe hat, den vorigen vergessen zu machen«. Im Rückblick erscheint Walsers Werk als literarische Umschreibung des »Endes der Eindeutigkeit« (Zygmunt Bauman) und damit letztlich als eine Positionsbestimmung der Moderne. Im Gegensatz zu dialektischen Denkmustern, die Entscheidung oder Synthese anstreben, entwickelt dieser Schriftsteller beweglich-gleitende Ausdrucksweisen. Seine Figuren, oftmals widerspenstig und unterwürfi g, verkörpern das Vage und Brüchige persönlicher Identität.
Fourteen Hard Questions and Straight Answers about a Baltic Country
Author: Jukka Rislakki
What do we know about Latvia and the Latvians? A Baltic (not Balkan) nation that emerged from fifty years under the Soviet Union – interrupted by a brief but brutal Nazi-German occupation and a devastating war – now a member of the European Union and NATO. Yes, but what else? Relentless accusations keep appearing, especially in Russian media, often repeated in the West: “Latvian soldiers single-handedly saved Lenin’s revolution in 1917”, “Latvians killed Tsar Nikolai II and the Royal family”, “Latvia was a thoroughly anti-Semitic country and Latvians started killing Jews even before the Germans arrived in 1941”, “Nazi revival is rampant in today's Latvia”, “The Russian minority is persecuted in Latvia...”
True, false or in-between? The Finnish journalist and author Jukka Rislakki examines charges like these and provides an outline of Latvia's recent history while attempting to separate documented historical fact from misinformation and deliberate disinformation. His analysis helps to explain why the Baltic States (population 7 million) consistently top the enemy lists in public opinion polls of Russia (143 million). His knowledge of the Baltic languages allows him to make use of local sources and up-to-date historical research. He is a former Baltic States correspondent for Finland's largest daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat and the author of several books on Finnish and Latvian history. As a neutral, experienced and often critical observer, Rislakki is uniquely qualified for the task of separating truth from fiction.
Editor: Michael Hanne
Until recently, discussion of ‘creativity in exile’ has focussed almost exclusively on a few European male writers, from Dante to Joseph Brodsky, who sought refuge abroad from political oppression. This volume, with accompanying 100-minute DVD, ranges much more widely, to examine the extraordinary creative endeavours in a range of media of men and women in almost every part of the world who, for a host of different reasons, have experienced displacement from their homelands. It brings together papers by academics, many of whom have experienced exile themselves, on topics as diverse as: the visual arts in Colombia, fiction by displaced indigenous peoples, convicts and slaves as exiles, writings about the partition of Bengal, the culture of Palestinian Americans, philosophers on exile, and the significance of cooking to refugee communities, which are interspersed with poems by contemporary writers in exile. The use of the DVD format has permitted the inclusion of: studio interviews with notable exiled writers from Nigeria, Cyprus and Bulgaria, extracts from two films relating to exile, a live reading of his work by an Iraqi poet, an audio and sculptural installation by a First Nations Canadian artist, and a performance by musicians in exile from Burundi.
Perspectives on Gender and Class in the History of British and Irish Psychiatry
Editor: Anne Digby
This innovative collection of essays employs historical and sociological approaches to provide important case studies of asylums, psychiatry and mental illness in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Leading scholars in the field working on a variety of geographical, temporal, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts, show how class and gender have historically affected and conditioned the thinking, language, and processes according to which society identified and responded to the mentally ill. Contributors to this volume focus on both class and gender and thus are able to explore their interaction, whereas previous publications addressed class or gender incidentally, partially, or in isolation. By adopting this dual focus as its unifying theme, the volume is able to supply new insights into such interesting topics as patient careers, the relationship between lay and professional knowledge of insanity, the boundaries of professional power, and the creation of psychiatric knowledge. Particularly useful to student readers (and to those new to this academic field) is a substantive and accessible introduction to existing scholarship in the field, which signposts the ways in which this collection challenges, adjusts and extends previous perspectives.
Common Traditions and New Developments
In postcolonial theory we have now reached a new stage in the succession of key concepts. After the celebrations of hybridity in the work of Homi Bhabha and Gayatri Spivak, it is now the concept of diaspora that has sparked animated debates among postcolonial critics. This collection intervenes in the current discussion about the 'new' diaspora by placing the rise of diaspora within the politics of multiculturalism and its supercession by a politics of difference and cultural-rights theory. The essays present recent developments in Jewish negotiations of diasporic tradition and experience, discussing the reinterpretation of concepts of the 'old' diaspora in late twentieth- century British and American Jewish literature. The second part of the volume comprises theoretical and critical essays on the South Asian diaspora and on multicultural settings between Australia, Africa, the Caribbean and North America. The South Asian and Caribbean diasporas are compared to the Jewish prototype and contrasted with the Turkish diaspora in Germany. All essays deal with literary reflections on, and thematizations of, the diasporic predicament.
Zur produktiven Auseinandersetzung mit der schöpferischen Persönlichkeit
Bereits in der Antike entwickelte sich eine Metakunst, die die Kunst und das Künstlertum selber zum Objekt von Kunstäusserungen machte. In der Zeit der Postmoderne ist die Thematisierung realer Kunst und realer Künstlergestalten in der Kunst nicht mehr wegzudenken. Künstler-Bilder vereint zehn Aufsätze, die sich mit literarischen Werken befassen, in denen der Autor sich historischen Künstlergestalten zuwendet, um sich so in ihnen zu spiegeln. Objekt der Darstellung sind Musiker, bildende Künstler und, vor allem, Dichter. Zeitlich reicht das Spektrum von Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz’ Umgang mit Goethe als verehrtem Vorbild im 18. bis zu Hanns-Josef Ortheils eigenwilliger Sicht aus dem späten 20. Jahrhunderts auf die römischen Abenteuer Goethes. Ihm treten Mörike und Mozart, Stefan Zweig und Balzac, Hodler und Pedretti, Bernhard und Freumbichler, Härtling und Hölderlin, Kühn und Schumann sowie Grass und Fontane, um nur einige zu nennen, an die Seite.
Nur selten ist die historische Künstlergestalt Gegenstand der Verehrung oder der Idealisierung. Vereinnahmung, Vergegenwärtigung, Problematisierung oder gar Ironisierung waren und sind in der Auseinandersetzung mit ihr nicht weniger ergiebig. Die Vielfalt der Möglichkeiten im produktiven Umgang mit historischem Schöpfertum will der vorliegende Band aufscheinen lassen.
Editor: Christian Mair
The complex politics of English as a world language provides the backdrop both for linguistic studies of varieties of English around the world and for postcolonial literary criticism. The present volume offers contributions from linguists and literary scholars that explore this common ground in a spirit of open interdisciplinary dialogue.
Leading authorities assess the state of the art to suggest directions for further research, with substantial case studies ranging over a wide variety of topics - from the legitimacy of language norms of lingua franca communication to the recognition of newer post-colonial varieties of English in the online OED. Four regional sections treat the Caribbean (including the diaspora), Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australasia and the Pacific Rim.
Each section maintains a careful balance between linguistics and literature, and external and indigenous perspectives on issues. The book is the most balanced, complete and up-to-date treatment of the topic to date.
Women, Writing & Subjectivities
The essays in this collection ( on Canada, the USA, Australia and the UK) question and discuss the issues of cross-cultural identities and the crossing of boundaries, both geographical and conceptual. All of the authors have experienced cross-culturalism directly and are conscious that positions of ‘double vision’, which allow the / to participate positively in two or more cultures, are privileges that only a few can celebrate. Most women find themselves “caught between cultures”. They become involved in a day-to-day struggle, in an attempt to negotiate identities which can affirm the self and, at the same time, strengthen the ties which unites the self with others. Theoretical issues on cross-culturalism, therefore, can either liberate or constrict the /. The essays here illustrate how women's writing negotiates this dualism through a colourful and complex weaving of words - thoughts and experiences both pleasurable and painful - into texts, quilts, rainbows. The metaphors abound. The connecting thread through their writing and, indeed, in these essays, is the concept of ‘belonging’, a theoretical/emotional composite of be-ing and longing. ‘Home’, too, assumes a variety of meanings; it is no longer a static geographical place, but many places. It is also a place elsewhere in the imagination, a mythic place of desire linked to origin.
Policies of multiculturalism can throw up more problems than they solve. In Canada, the difficulties surrounding the cross-cultural debate have given rise to a state of “messy imbroglio”. Notions of authenticity move dangerously close to essentialist identities. ‘Double vision’ is characteristic of peoples who have been uprooted and displaced, such as Australian Aboriginal writers of mixed race abducted during childhood. ‘Passing for’ black or white is full of complications, as in the case of Pauline Johnson, who passed as an authentic Indian. People with hyphenated citizenship (such as Japanese-Canadian) can be either free of national ties or trapped in subordination to the dominant culture; in these ‘visible minorities’, it is the status of being female (or coloured female) that is so often ultimately rendered invisible.
Examination of Canadian anthologies on cross-cultural writing by women reveals a crossing of boundaries of gender and genre, race and ethnicity, and, in some cases, national boundaries, in an attempt to connect with a diasporic consciousness. Cross-cultural women writers in the USA may stress experience and unique collective history, while others prefer to focus on aesthetic links and literary connections which ultimately silence difference. Journeying from the personal space of the / into the collective space of the we is exemplified in a reading of texts by June Jordan and Minnie Bruce Pratt. For these writers identity is in process. It is a painful negotiation but one which can transform knowledge into action.
The present volume of Critical Studies is a collection of selected essays on the topic of feminism and femininity in Chinese literature. Although feminism has been a hot topic in Chinese literary circles in recent years, this remarkable collection represents one of the first of its kind to be published in English. The essays have been written by well-known scholars and feminists including Kang-I Sun Chang of Yale University, and Li Ziyun, a writer and feminist in Shanghai, China. The essays are inter- and multi-disciplinary, covering several historical periods in poetry and fiction (from the Ming-Qing periods to the twentieth century). In particular, the development of women’s writing in the New Period (post-1976) is examined in depth. The articles thus offer the reader a composite and broad perspective of feminism and the treatment of the female in Chinese literature. As this remarkable new collection attests, the voices of women in China have begun calling out loudly, in ways that challenge prevalent views about the Chinese female persona.
Metamorphoses of Genre in Anglophone West African Literature
Author: Pietro Deandrea
In retracing some of the routes followed by West African literature in English over the course of the last three decades, this book employs an original multidimensional approach whereby the three main genres - narrative, poetry and drama – are considered in the light of their intricate web of fecund rapport and mutual influence.
Authors such as Tutuola, Armah, Aidoo and Awoonor translated the fluid structures of orality into written prose, and consequently infused their works with poetic and dramatic resonance, thereby challenging the canonical dominance of social realism and paving the way for the birth of West African magical realism in Laing, Okri and Cheney-Coker.
Starting in the 1970s, poetry on stage has become a mainstream genre in Ghana, thanks to performances by Okai, Anyidoho and Acquah.
Boundaries between literary theatre and other genres have undergone a similar dissolution in the affirmation of the concept of ‘total art’ from Efua Sutherland to ben Abdallah, Osofisan and others.
Fertile Crossings offers a study of these topics from various viewpoints, blending in-depth textual analysis with reflections on the political import of the works in question within the context of the present state of African societies, all supported by interviews with most of the authors.