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There is no doubt that the individual has become a judicial person in the international legal order. Access mechanisms to international judges have become numerous. Despite this progress, questions remain and the co-authors of this volume address them from a legal point of view, bringing new perspectives to this topic. Do the imposed obligations and rights granted to the individuals confer on them subjectivity in the international legal order? What are the conditions and the limits to the access of the individual to international justice, especially regional, in order to protect the rights granted by human rights and to claim for reparation, including against multinational companies? To what extent does the international criminal justice favour the access of the victims to justice?
The co-authors address not only the classical questions of the legal personality of the individual, but also the contributions made by international criminal law, including from an African perspective, the compensation systems such as the United Nations Compensation Commission, and the alternative modes of dispute settlements.

L’émergence de l’individu comme être juridique dans l’ordre international est incontestable. Les mécanismes d’accès direct à des juges internationaux se sont multipliés. Malgré ces avancées, il reste des questions en suspend auxquelles les coauteurs de cet ouvrage tentent d’apporter des éléments de réponse, dans une perspective résolument juridique, en dégageant des perspectives nouvelles sur le sujet.
Les obligations imposées et les droits octroyés aux individus leur confèrent-ils la subjectivité dans l’ordre juridique international ? Quelles sont les conditions et les limites de l’accès de l’individu à la justice internationale, notamment régionale, en vue de la protection de ses droits consacrés par les droits de l’homme et de demander réparation, y compris contre les sociétés multinationales ? Dans quelle mesure la justice pénale internationale favorise-t-elle l’accès des victimes à la justice ?
Les coauteurs abordent non seulement les questions classiques de la personnalité juridique des individus, mais également les apports du droit international pénal, y compris dans une perspective africaine, les formules compensatoires comme la commission d’indemnisation des Nations Unies, et les modes alternatifs de règlement des différends.

With the contribution of:
N. Chaeva; A. Garrido-Muñoz; W. Hoeffner; F. Pascual-Vives; G. M. Frisso; T. Szabados; M. Marchegiani; L. Sam; A.-G. Tchaou Sipowo; T. Yamashita.
The Academy is a prestigious international institution for the study and teaching of public and private international law and related subjects. The work of the Hague Academy receives the support and recognition of the UN. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law .

See interviews with authors on the course they presented at the Hague Academy of International Law Summer Courses.

The Hague Academy Collected Courses / Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de La Haye are also available online.
The Academy publishes the papers from the Workshops which it organizes, each looking at future-oriented topics in international law. The Series also includes a collection of fundamental books, The Law Books of the Academy. More recently, if the Centre for Studies and Research attains an exceptionally high standard, a single volume containing the reports of the Directors and the best contributions from the participants is published as a volume in this Series.

L’Académie publie également les documents issus des colloques qu’elle organise sur des sujets touchant à l’avenir du droit international. Par commodité, ces ouvrages ont été associés à la collection Les Livres de droit de l’Académie. En effet, suite à une décision récente, les travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche témoignant d’un niveau exceptionnel sont consignés dans un volume unique, lequel contient à la fois les rapports des directeurs d’études et les meilleures contributions des participants.

Titles previously published in this series (from 1995 onwards) can now be found here: Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations Series.

Titles in this series are available online as part of The Hague Academy Collected Courses Online / Recueil des cours de l'Académie de la Haye en ligne.
The Academy publishes the papers from the Workshops which it organizes, each looking at future oriented topics in international law.
After twenty years of negotiation within the framework of the Disarmament Conference, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction was signed in Paris between 13 and 15 January 1993. At the same time, the signatory States adopted a resolution instituting a Preparatory Commission, established in The Hague, with the aim of `the prompt and effective establishment of the future Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons'.
A variety of converging considerations led the Curatorium of the Academy of International Law to organize a workshop on this subject: first the very interesting nature of the highly sensitive problems raised by the destruction of chemical weapons, both on the strategic and political planes, as well as on technical, financial and ecological grounds; but also the originality and difficulty, from the legal standpoint, of the numerous questions which will inevitably arise in connection with the application of the Paris Convention.
Finally, the Paris Convention, which is innovative in many respects, particularly in that it institutes international control over the whole of an industrial activity, may be used as a model in other areas of disarmament, in particular the area of nuclear weapons.
With the increasing sophistication of transnational criminal organization, coupled with globalization and its heavy dependence on maritime transport, the suppression of criminality at sea has again become a priority on the international community’s agenda. The theme at the heart of this volume is therefore Crimes at Sea — an issue of both great practical importance and academic interest. This work is the fruit of the 2012 session of the Hague Academy Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations — collectively, the fourteen chapters in this volume underscore the common challenges in international co-operation at the legal level with respect to crimes at sea and identify a number of the potential strengths and shortcomings of the applicable international law. There is a wide breadth of subject matters addressed in this volume, some focusing on particular crimes at sea, others on the general international legal framework within which responses to criminality at sea operate. Throughout the volume, there is a common theme of regime interaction — exploring the limits and efficiencies resulting from the overlapping applicability of human rights law, international criminal law, the law of State responsibility and the UN Charter regime. The contributions both illustrate and clarify the significant links between these legal regimes which support the fight against crimes at sea.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 35.
It is evident that the need to protect cultural objects exceeds the interest of a single owner or a bona fide purchaser, the State of an object's origin or the State where an object is located. Despite the complexity of weighing the contending interests and selecting appropriate rules from a welter of norms and customs, why can't we envisage a truly comprehensive set of international principles, practices and procedures, to protect the cultural heritage of mankind? Toward this end, the Centre for Studies and Research of The Hague Academy of International Law's programme provided a unique opportunity for organized exploration and analysis. This volume presents the resulting studies prepared by the Directors of Research, together with the more specific reports by the researchers working within the Centre. Together they offer an insightful analysis of the importance of fashioning durable rules and institutions for protecting the cultural heritage of mankind from the risks of armed conflict or illegal trafficking.

Il est évident que le besoin de protéger les objets culturels prévaut sur l’intérêt d’un quelconque propriétaire ou acheteur, ainsi que sur son pays d’origine ou encore sur celui où il se trouve. Or, le fait de devoir ménager différents intérêts conflictuels et sélectionner les règles appropriées dans une pléthore de normes et de coutumes apparaît comme une tâche extrêmement complexe. Par conséquent, pourquoi ne pas envisager de définir un ensemble complet de principes, pratiques et procédures à mettre en oeuvre sur le plan international dans le but de protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité ? Le Centre d’étude et de recherche de l’Académie de droit international de La Haye a précisément conçu un programme dont le but est d’explorer et d’analyser cette démarche. Ce volume présente le résultat des études préparées par les directeurs de recherche et les rapports plus spécifiques produits par les chercheurs dans le cadre de ce programme. Utilisés ensemble, ces documents permettent d’analyser de façon approfondie l’importance qu’il y a à établir des règles et les institutions durables visant à protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité contre les risques liés aux conflits armés et autres trafics illégaux.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 28.
It is a truism to state that since the end of the Cold War there has been unprecedented activity in the United Nations Security Council. These days the Council adopts around a hundred resolutions every year, and acts in the most diverse fields. It is true that its actions fall within the framework of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, but they are the expression of a considerable extension of the concept of international security. This dynamism is explained, inside the Council, by the fact that since the Gulf War the Council has no longer been stymied by the casting of a veto, and outside the Council, by the increased number of armed conflicts, especially in Africa (Mozambique, Somalia, Liberia and Angola) and in Eastern Europe. The Council has never until now been called upon so often to send peace-keeping forces to so many parts of the world.
These are the thoughts which induced the Curatorium to organize a workshop to evaluate the scale and significance of this phenomenon. This volume is the outcome of the workshop. First of all, it examines the development of the powers of the Security Council; secondly, the development of the areas in which it acts; and finally it determines the place of the Security Council within the United Nations system.
What legal principles apply when courts in different jurisdictions are simultaneously seised with the same dispute ? This question — of international lis pendens — has long been controversial. But it has taken on new and urgent importance in our age. Globalization has driven an unprecedented rise in forum shopping between national courts and a proliferation of new international tribunals. Problems of litispendence have spawned some of the most dramatic litigation of modern times — from anti-suit injunction battles in commercial disputes, to the appeals of prisoners on death row to international human rights tribunals. The way we respond to this challenge has profound theoretical implications for the interaction of legal systems in today’s pluralistic world. In this wide-ranging survey, McLachlan analyses the problems of parallel litigation — in private and public international law and international arbitration. He argues that we need to develop a more sophisticated set of rules of conflict of litigation, guided by a cosmopolitan conception of the rule of law.

Quels principes juridiques font foi lorsque des tribunaux de différentes juridictions sont saisis simultanément pour le même litige ? La problématique de la litispendance internationale a longtemps été controversée. Mais, de nos jours, elle devient de plus en plus importante. La mondialisation a entrainé une augmentation sans précédent de surenchères judiciaires entre les tribunaux nationaux, ainsi qu’une prolifération de nouveaux tribunaux internationaux. Les problèmes de litispendance ont engendré quelques uns des litiges les plus dramatiques des temps modernes, allant des batailles d’anti-suit injunction lors de litiges commerciaux aux appels des prisonniers dans le couloir de la mort devant les tribunaux internationaux des droits de l’Homme. La manière dont nous faisons face à ce défi a de grandes implications théoriques pour les interactions des systèmes judiciaires dans notre monde pluraliste. Dans cette étude de grande envergure, McLachlan analyse les problèmes de litiges parallèles au niveau du droit international privé et public, ainsi que l’arbitrage international. Selon lui, nous devons concevoir de nouvelles règles plus sophistiquées concernant les conflits de litiges, tout en respectant une conception cosmopolite de l’Etat de droit.