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Author: Daniel Schumann
In Gelübde im antiken Judentum und frühesten Christentum stellt Daniel Schumann auf breiter Quellenbasis die Diskurse zum „Gelübdewesen“ dar, wie sie sich in antik-jüdischen und frühchristlichen Quellen aus der Zeit des Zweiten Tempels schriftlich niedergeschlagen haben. Er zeigt dabei auf, wie Judentum und Christentum seit der Spätantike durch die Rezeption dieser Diskurse in ihrer Religionspraxis an antiken Formen des Gelübdewesen partizipierten und dieses auch weiterentwickelten. Ferner legt er offen, wie sich in jüdischer wie auch christlicher Wahrnehmung Stimmen der Wertschätzung aber auch der Reserviertheit durch die Jahrhunderte hindurch aneinanderreihen; handelt es sich doch beim Gelübdewesen um eine kultpraktische Übung, bei der Heil und Unheil so nah beieinander zu liegen scheinen wie wohl sonst bei kaum einer anderen frömmigkeitlichen Handlung.

In Gelübde im antiken Judentum und frühesten Christentum Daniel Schumann aims to trace the earliest discourses on vows, as they are recorded in ancient Jewish and early Christian sources from the time of the Second Temple. He also shows how Judaism and Christianity have participated in ancient forms of vow-making since late antiquity and how they also have developed these discourses further. By presenting these discourses on the basis of a broad range of sources, he reveals how in Jewish as well as in Christian perception, voices of esteem but also of reservation have been raised throughout the centuries. After all, vows are a cult-practical exercise in which well-being and disaster are in closer proximity than in most other acts of devotion.
Cult Disputes as the Motive for Schism in the Pre-70 Pluralistic Environment
Author: Paul Heger
The study asserts that conflicting sacrificial rules were the motive of the schism in Judean society, in the last period of the Second Temple. The study substantiates the thesis by a meticulous examination and comparison of the rabbinic and Qumran exegetical methods, and an exhaustive scrutiny of biblical sacrificial rules, demonstrating their deficiencies, the cause of the exegetical dissensions among the different groups. A short record of historical struggles, due to cult issues, and a scrutiny of Qumran literature, corroborating the utmost significance of the Temple cult in that group, complement the study. The study is useful for a comprehension of Qumran literature and particularly of the system of thought of its authors and their approach to the biblical writings.
The Sapiential Literature of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Author: Matthew J. Goff
Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira was the only Hebrew wisdom text from the late Second Temple period. The Qumran scrolls provide an abundance of previously unknown Hebrew sapiential material. Discerning Wisdom provides a systematic overview of all the Qumran texts that are commonly identified as wisdom compositions. This literature raises issues such as the incorporation of apocalypticism and Torah piety into the sapiential tradition. The Dead Sea Scrolls offer crucial evidence for understanding the wisdom of the late Second Temple period and the reception of traditional wisdom in Early Judaism.
This volume consists of an edition, a translation and a commentary of the most important fragments of 4QInstruction. Initially it deals with the linguistic characteristics of the scroll highlighting the links between 4QInstruction and Ben Sira, and also with the Community Rule and the Hodayot. It then investigates the Sapiential fragments dealing with poverty, husband-wife and parent-child relationships. Finally it examines the eschatological fragments.
The work seeks to improve the edition and understanding of this fundamental text enhancing our knowledge of the history and development of thinking at Qumran. Moreover, it examines links which 4QInstruction establishes between purely Sapiential discourse and descriptions of eschatological judgement. This study substantially illuminates our understanding of the Wisdom movement in the early intertestamental period.
This book focuses on the third section of one of the most important documents from the Qumran library, the epilogue of 4QMMT. It re-evaluates the textual basis for this section, and analyses how the epilogue functions as a part of the larger document. In addition to addressing the structure and genre of 4QMMT, this volume analyzes the use of Scripture in the epilogue in order to illuminate the theological agenda of the document's author/redactor. Although this book’s primary focus is on the epilogue, the results of this investigation shed light on 4QMMT as a whole.
A New Paradigm of Textual Development for The Community Rule
Since the discovery of the Cave 4 versions of The Community Rule (Serekh ha-Yaḥad or S), scholars have been perplexed about its complex textual history. This important charter material for the Dead Sea Scrolls’ authors appears in alternate versions—ones with contradictory legal prescriptions and opposing self-references—but exhibits no clear order of chronological development. Benefitting from the entire Qumran library now available to us, this book offers a new, broader model for reading S that better accounts for the long and diverse history behind the text. The resulting paradigm challenges the Qumrancentric lens through which many read the “sectarian texts” and offers a fresh way of thinking about sectarian community formation among the authors of the Scrolls.
Structured by four important themes, the book discusses various aspects pertaining to the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The first theme is comprised by a number of essays that deal with different aspects of textual interpretation of particular Qumran writings. The second theme centers on the question of historical referentiality. How can the purported referentiality of particular Qumran writings be used in order to reconstruct an underlying historical reality? The third theme includes essays that pertain to different dimensions concerning the methodology of interpretation. The fourth theme focuses on problems relating to the textual reconstruction of specific Qumran texts. In the final section of the book, the perspective is widened to other writings outside the more specific Qumran context.
The Rewriting of Genesis 11:26-25:10 in the Book of Jubilees 11:14-23:8
In Abraham in the Book of Jubilees, Jacques van Ruiten offers a systematic analysis of one of the most important and extensive Second Temple Jewish treatments of the figure of Abraham (Jub. 11:14-23:8). Given the importance of representations and reinterpretations of Abraham within Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, a careful analysis of this early source is an important contribution to research both on the evolving images of biblical patriarchs and on the history of biblical interpretation.

There are many references to Jubilees in articles and books on images of Abraham. They are chosen for exegetical motifs, with little attention for its own literary and narrative dynamics, or for the specific writing and reading practices that it embodies and attests. Van Ruiten’s careful analysis thus provides important context and corrective.
Author: Daniel Olson
A New Reading of the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch is the most comprehensive theological commentary on this important second-century BCE Jewish apocalypse to date, laying out the purpose and methodology of this Enochic allegory and using this as the basis for a new commentary on the whole text, presented here in a fresh translation. Against other interpretations that focus on Israel and its institutions, Daniel Olson argues that the promise of universal blessing in the Abrahamic covenant is presented in the Animal Apocalypse as the governing dynamic in a sacred history that begins and ends with humanity in general. The authentic Jacob/Israel will appear in the end times and be the catalyst of universal salvation
A Thinker in the Jewish Diaspora
Philo (20BCE?-45CE?) is the most illustrious son of Alexandrian Jewry and the first major scholar to combine a deep Jewish learning with Greek philosophy. His unique allegorical exegesis of the Greek Bible was to have a profound influence on the early fathers of the Church. Philo was, above all, a philosopher, but he was also intensely practical in his defence of the Jewish faith and law in general, and that of Alexandria’s embattled Jewish community in particular. A famous example was his leadership of a perilous mission to plead the community’s cause to Emperor Caligula. This monograph provides a guide to Philo's life, his thought and his action, as well as his continuing influence on theological and philosophical thought.