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Digital Writing, Digital Scriptures
Author:
Ecritures digitales aims to demonstrate how digital writing contributes to the emergence of “a new relationship between the human body and the machine” as Jacques Derrida proposed when he considered the effects of new technologies. This reconfigured relationship, not surprisingly, is also influencing the digital future of the Jewish-Christian textual corpus referred to as “the Scriptures”. The French title brings together this duality in one expression: Ecritures digitales. The English subtitle makes explicit the double meaning of the unique French word Ecritures: Digital writing, digital Scriptures. With a full French version and an abbreviated English version, this monograph analyzes the main challenges and opportunities for both writing and the Scriptures in the transition to digital culture. Ecritures digitales souhaite démontrer de quelle manière l’écriture digitale contribue à l’émergence d’une « nouvelle relation du corps humain aux machines », selon le diagnostique posé par Jacques Derrida à propos des effets des nouvelles technologies. Cette relation innovante influence également l’avenir numérique du corpus textuel judéo-chrétien désigné comme «les Ecritures». Le titre français rassemble en une seule expression ces deux thématiques: Ecritures digitales. Le sous-titre anglais rend sa double signification explicite: Digital writing, digital Scriptures. Avec une version française complète et une version anglaise brève, cette monographie analyse les principaux défis des métamorphoses digitales de l’écriture et des Ecritures.
Die Grenzen alttestamentlicher Redaktionsgeschichte im Lichte empirischer Evidenz
Author:
Mit seiner bahnbrechenden preisgekrönten Kritik des Wachstumsmodells plädiert Benjamin Ziemer für einen Paradigmenwechsel in der alttestamentlichen Literaturgeschichte. Er untersucht in detaillierten Einzelstudien einen repräsentativen Katalog empirischer Beispiele für Redaktion, vom Gilgamesch-Epos über das ägyptische Totenbuch bis hin zu biblischen Büchern (Chronik, Jeremia, Daniel, Esther) und Qumranschriften (Tempelrolle, Sektenregel). Er zeigt, dass die durch Textvergleich nachweisbaren Redaktoren ihre Vorlagen nie nur durch Neues erweitert, sondern immer auch zugleich Formulierungen angepasst oder vervielfältigt, heterogenes Material eingearbeitet oder eine kürzende Auswahl getroffen haben. Bislang dominieren im kontinentaleuropäischen Forschungskontext Fortschreibungs- und Ergänzungshypothesen, nach denen man ein beliebiges Textelement nur der richtigen Entstehungsschicht zuweisen müsse, um seinen ursprünglichen literarischen Kontext wiederherstellen zu können. Dieses Modell stufenweisen »literarischen Wachstums« ist, so Ziemer, wissenschaftlich nicht mehr haltbar.


With his groundbreaking award-winnig study Kritik des Wachstumsmodells, Benjamin Ziemer is arguing for a change of paradigm in Old Testament literary criticism. He examines a representative list of empirical examples of editorial processes, including the Gilgamesh Epic, the Book of the Dead, books of the Bible and Dead Sea Scrolls. He shows that redactors who can be identified by external evidence never confined themselves to adding new material. Rather, they simultaneously adjusted or duplicated parts of the text, incorporated material from elsewhere or shortened their source texts. Until now, the bulk of redaction critical studies in Europe adhere to the presupposition of textual or literary »growth« – assuming that multiple previous layers are to be found intact in the final texts. With Ziemer’s study, this model of growth is no longer tenable.
Volume Editors: and
In The Hebrew Bible: A Millennium, scholars from different fields and dealing with different material sources are trying to consider the Hebrew Bible as a whole. The development of new databases and other technological tools have an increasing impact on research practices. By inviting doctoral students, young researchers, and established scholars to contribute, this interdisciplinary book showcases methods and perspectives which can support future scientific collaborations in the field of the Hebrew Bible.
This edited volume gathers relevant research from Dead Sea Scrolls Studies, Cairo Genizah Studies, European Genizah Studies, and from Late Medieval Biblical Manuscript Studies.
Author:
The literary genre of “thumb bibles” belongs to the category of miniature books and is a subtype of children's bibles. Thumb bibles summarize the full bible by paraphrasing selected biblical narratives. Adhering to the Reformation principle of sola scriptura, their aim is to teach children and youth the biblical basics. For this purpose, many of them are illustrated. Popular with collectors, thumb bibles have largely been ignored by researchers. This publication is the first academic study of thumb bibles. For the first time in their centuries-long history, it explores their genesis in Britain, investigates their subsequent development in Germany, and presents their climax in America. What emerges is the theological, literary, pedagogical and pious profile of a fascinating genre.

This book is a translation of Daumen-Bibel: Eine Untersuchung zu Geschichte und Profil einer literarischen Gattung (V&R unipress, 2021).

Parts 1-7<
Includes both Early Printed Bibles collections published to date:
Parts 1-6, and
Part 7.
Early Printed Bibles
Part 7 - Printed Bibles and Bible translations from the 15th and 16th centuries

The Bible has played an important role in the development of European culture. It has served as the foundation for many of the religious, social, and legal institutions that have shaped modern Europe. As one of the earliest texts to be written and published in the vernacular, the Bible has stimulated the development of many European languages, and it has been an important source of inspiration for painters, writers, poets, musicians, and other artists. Because of its strong influence on the arts, the Bible and Bible-related topics have traditionally been important issues for museums, libraries, and other public cultural institutions, as well as for scholars and publishers.
The actual production process, which involved the interaction of translators, publishers, printers, financiers, and artists, reflects the book’s international character. Ever since the invention of the printing press, the process of book production, of which Bible production formed an important part, has been a truly Pan-European activity. In some cases, printer-publishers would base their editions on those of other printer-publishers, occasionally even using the same typographical material. This practice has allowed the identification of clusters of closely related European editions. The titles and biblical text of all editions within one of these clusters are always identical, and some may even share typographical and iconographical material.
This collection of c. 400 published Bibles and Bible translations from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is a thorough revision of a selection that was published earlier by Fritz Büsser. One important change that appears in the current revision is the inclusion of Biblical books that were issued separately (e.g., Luther’s Der Prophet Jona, from 1526). The new selection also incorporates the results of recent research. Individual sections of this collection have been reviewed by specialists in the field. For example, the section on French Bibles was reviewed by Bettye Chambers, author of the Bibliography of French Bibles (vol. 1 & 2), and the section on Italian Bibles was reviewed by Eduardo Barbieri, author of Le Bibbie italiane del Quattrocento e del Cinquecento. Gwendolyn Verbraak, bibliographer of the Biblia Sacra project (Universiteit van Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), reviewed several parts of the collection. The current selection also includes editions in languages that were not represented in Büsser’s earlier work, such as Arabic and Armenian.
Three criteria guided the selection of editions to be included in this collection. The first criterion involved content. Only first editions of each translation and of the fundamental revisions were selected for inclusion. Form was a second criterion; editions with rare woodcuts, rare typographical materials, or similar features were included. Finally, we chose to include rare editions of which very few (in some cases, only one) copies have survived. Our final selection includes Bibles from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as well as several editions from the early seventeenth century. Because Bibles formed a substantial proportion of the entire volume of printed books, this project provides important insights into book production in Europe during this period.
Because of its international character, European book production was a multilingual and multicultural enterprise. Printers and publishers produced books in various languages for a Pan-European, trans-confessional, and multicultural market. This selection of Bibles constitutes a unique instrument that will provide a clear overview of this important part of European cultural heritage, and it will serve as a useful tool for further study in the history of printing, art, language, linguistics, culture, church, and other historical disciplines.

Prof. dr. August den Hollander, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam / Universiteit van Amsterdam
Early Printed Bibles
Parts 1-6

We need not, in this context, point to the significance which Holy Scripture has had for the history of occidental culture in its broadest sense. The Bible and its interpretation have played a major role in this process. This holds especially for the sixteenth century - the age of the Reformation. The Reformers dethroned the pope and enthroned the Bible. [Cambridge History of the Bible III.1]. Thus they established the Bible as the sole foundation and guideline for faith and life in Protestantism while at the same time forcing Rome to attribute to Scripture the same significance as Tradition held. All this was aided by two circumstances. On the one hand, the discovery of movable type made it technically possible to produce and distribute Holy Scripture in unprecedented quantities. On the other hand, humanism provided the scholarly know-how: the mastery of the Classic languages, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew and of Classical rhetoric as a method for the exposition and translation of the Bible.

The collection
This edition of Bibles and Bible translations from the sixteenth century is quantitatively as comprehensive as possible. It contains all significant editions of Holy Scripture or of the Old Testament and New Testament in the original language, i.e., editions of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, and the Vulgate both in the transmitted versions and in the forms which humanists and reformers revised or published in new editions. Our edition also contains all major translations in the modern languages of Europe. In this connection we considered not only first editions but also later editions which represent noteworthy revisions. Here we included not only those editions which were authorized by ecclesiastical or temporal authorities but also the translations made by dissenters. It goes without saying that polyglots of various kinds were also included.

Qualitative aspect of the project
On the history of printing
In the first place, the Bibles and Bible translations dating from the sixteenth century illustrate a fascinating chapter in the history of printing. Most of the publishers and printers of the time - in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland, in The Netherlands as well as in England - published Bibles. For this purpose, as a rule they not only spent substantial amounts of money, but also invested a great deal of effort and technical skill. Apart from the fact that the printing itself was a work of art, the Bibles were further enhanced by prominent painters who designed the title page and illustrated the text.

On the history of language
Second, the Bibles and Bible translations provide an absolutely unique source for the study of the history of language. They inform us not only about the mastery of the Classical languages at the time, but also about the stage and level of development of the modern languages in European countries at the beginning of the modern era. The translations give us comprehensive material in the still inconclusive debate concerning the many possible principles and methods of translation. Above all, they testify to the superb achievement of individual editors and translators (e.g. Erasmus, Luther) or entire teams (Complutensian Polyglot, Zurich Bible).

On the linguistic aspects
Of greater fundamental significance still is the linguistic aspect of the Bible translations. As can be seen from the well-known case of Luther's Bible, translations contributed in a major way - through their extensive vocabulary and the manifold forms of expression - to the formation of most European languages. This is beyond dispute for Germany, England, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe. To a lesser extent it applies to Roman languages as well.

On confessional diversity
Finally, Bibles and Bible translations of the sixteenth century reflect the confessional diversity which was to shape Europe in wake of the Reformation. Our collection contains pre- and post Reformation Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Orthodox (and heterodox!) Bibles. Their confessional orientation is usually indicated in appropriate prefaces, admonitions, but can also be demonstrated on the basis of specific textual indications. Our edition of Bibles and Bible translations from the sixteenth century is a unique collection, because no library anywhere in the world possesses the resources to collect Bibles in this number and quality.

Prof. Dr. Fritz Büsser
This volume presents significant new research on several key aspects of the late mediaeval and early modern Bible. The essays in this collection deal with Bible scholarship and translation, illustration and production, Bible uses for lay devotion, and the role of Bibles in theological controversy. Inquiring into the ways in which scholars gave new forms to their Bibles and how their readers received their work, this book considers the contribution of key figures such as Castellio, Bibliander, Tremellius, Piscator and Calov. In addition, it examines the exegetical controversies between several centres of Reformed learning as well as among the theologians of Louvain. It encompasses biblical illustration in the Low Countries and the use of maps in the Geneva Bible, and considers the practice of Bible translation, and the strategies by which new versions were justified.
Volume Editors: and
Thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Latin Bibles survive in hundreds of manuscripts, one of the most popular books of the Middle Ages. Their innovative layout and organization established the norm for Bibles for centuries to come. This volume is the first study of these Bibles as a cohesive group. Multi- and inter-disciplinary analyses in art history, liturgy, exegesis, preaching and manuscript studies, reveal the nature and evolution of layout and addenda. They follow these Bibles as they were used by monks and friars, preachers and merchants. By addressing Latin Bibles alongside their French, Italian and English counterparts, this book challenges the Latin-vernacular dichotomy to show links, as well as discrepancies, between lay and clerical audiences and their books.

Contributors include Peter Stallybrass, Diane Reilly, Paul Saenger, Richard Gameson, Chiara Ruzzier, Giovanna Murano, Cornelia Linde, Lucie Doležalová, Laura Light, Eyal Poleg, Sabina Magrini, Sabrina Corbellini, Margriet Hoogvliet, Guy Lobrichon, Elizabeth Solopova, and Matti Peikola.
Volume Editors: and
Mostly remembered for his library and for his biblical criticism, Isaac Vossius (1618-1689) played a central role in the early modern European world of learning. Taking his cue from the unlikely bedfellows Joseph Scaliger and René Descartes, Vossius published on chronology, biblical criticism, optics, African geography and Chinese civilization, while collecting, annotating and selling one of the century’s most precious libraries. He was appointed an early Fellow of the Royal Society, and moved in the circles which later gave rise to the Académie Royale des Sciences. Together with Christiaan Huygens, he was considered the Dutch Republic’s foremost student of nature.
In this volume, a range of authors analyse Vossius’ participation in the full spectrum of the Republic of Letters, much of which has sadly been written out of the history of both scholarship and science.

Contributors include: Anthony Grafton, Scott Mandelbrote, Fokko Jan Dijksterhuis, Karel Davids, Thijs Weststeijn, Colette Nativel, Susan Derksen and Astrid C. Balsem