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There is no doubt that the individual has become a judicial person in the international legal order. Access mechanisms to international judges have become numerous. Despite this progress, questions remain and the co-authors of this volume address them from a legal point of view, bringing new perspectives to this topic. Do the imposed obligations and rights granted to the individuals confer on them subjectivity in the international legal order? What are the conditions and the limits to the access of the individual to international justice, especially regional, in order to protect the rights granted by human rights and to claim for reparation, including against multinational companies? To what extent does the international criminal justice favour the access of the victims to justice?
The co-authors address not only the classical questions of the legal personality of the individual, but also the contributions made by international criminal law, including from an African perspective, the compensation systems such as the United Nations Compensation Commission, and the alternative modes of dispute settlements.

L’émergence de l’individu comme être juridique dans l’ordre international est incontestable. Les mécanismes d’accès direct à des juges internationaux se sont multipliés. Malgré ces avancées, il reste des questions en suspend auxquelles les coauteurs de cet ouvrage tentent d’apporter des éléments de réponse, dans une perspective résolument juridique, en dégageant des perspectives nouvelles sur le sujet.
Les obligations imposées et les droits octroyés aux individus leur confèrent-ils la subjectivité dans l’ordre juridique international ? Quelles sont les conditions et les limites de l’accès de l’individu à la justice internationale, notamment régionale, en vue de la protection de ses droits consacrés par les droits de l’homme et de demander réparation, y compris contre les sociétés multinationales ? Dans quelle mesure la justice pénale internationale favorise-t-elle l’accès des victimes à la justice ?
Les coauteurs abordent non seulement les questions classiques de la personnalité juridique des individus, mais également les apports du droit international pénal, y compris dans une perspective africaine, les formules compensatoires comme la commission d’indemnisation des Nations Unies, et les modes alternatifs de règlement des différends.

With the contribution of:
N. Chaeva; A. Garrido-Muñoz; W. Hoeffner; F. Pascual-Vives; G. M. Frisso; T. Szabados; M. Marchegiani; L. Sam; A.-G. Tchaou Sipowo; T. Yamashita.
The Academy is a prestigious international institution for the study and teaching of public and private international law and related subjects. The work of the Hague Academy receives the support and recognition of the UN. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law .

The Hague Academy Collected Courses / Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de La Haye are also available online.

The series published an average of six volumes per year over the last 5 years.
The Academy publishes the papers from the Workshops which it organizes, each looking at future-oriented topics in international law. The Series also includes a collection of fundamental books, The Law Books of the Academy. More recently, if the Centre for Studies and Research attains an exceptionally high standard, a single volume containing the reports of the Directors and the best contributions from the participants is published as a volume in this Series.

L’Académie publie également les documents issus des colloques qu’elle organise sur des sujets touchant à l’avenir du droit international. Par commodité, ces ouvrages ont été associés à la collection Les Livres de droit de l’Académie. En effet, suite à une décision récente, les travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche témoignant d’un niveau exceptionnel sont consignés dans un volume unique, lequel contient à la fois les rapports des directeurs d’études et les meilleures contributions des participants.

Titles previously published in this series (from 1995 onwards) can now be found here: Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations Series.

Titles in this series are available online as part of The Hague Academy Collected Courses Online / Recueil des cours de l'Académie de la Haye en ligne.
The Academy publishes the papers from the Workshops which it organizes, each looking at future oriented topics in international law.
La doctrine et la jurisprudence la plus récente relèvent de plus en plus les limites de l’utilisation de la nationalité du navire dans la solution des conflits de loi et l’importance du droit uniforme. En ce qui concerne les conflits de lois relatifs aux transports maritimes de marchandise, il est tenu compte des différences des solutions adoptées à propos des charter-parties, des transports tramps et des transports maritimes de ligne documentés par un connaissement. S’agissant du contrat de travail maritime, sont mis en évidence l’affaiblissement du rôle de la nationalité du navire et l’importance croissante de la négociation collective internationale. A propos de la responsabilité extracontractuelle, c’est la lex damni qui s’applique, sauf lorsqu’il s’agit d’événements ayant lieu à bord du navire. De cette analyse, enfin, il ressort que la tendance à l’internationalisation du droit maritime et la fonction résiduelle confiée à la loi du pavillon dans la solution des conflits de lois sont confirmées.
It is evident that the need to protect cultural objects exceeds the interest of a single owner or a bona fide purchaser, the State of an object's origin or the State where an object is located. Despite the complexity of weighing the contending interests and selecting appropriate rules from a welter of norms and customs, why can't we envisage a truly comprehensive set of international principles, practices and procedures, to protect the cultural heritage of mankind? Toward this end, the Centre for Studies and Research of The Hague Academy of International Law's programme provided a unique opportunity for organized exploration and analysis. This volume presents the resulting studies prepared by the Directors of Research, together with the more specific reports by the researchers working within the Centre. Together they offer an insightful analysis of the importance of fashioning durable rules and institutions for protecting the cultural heritage of mankind from the risks of armed conflict or illegal trafficking.


Il est évident que le besoin de protéger les objets culturels prévaut sur l’intérêt d’un quelconque propriétaire ou acheteur, ainsi que sur son pays d’origine ou encore sur celui où il se trouve. Or, le fait de devoir ménager différents intérêts conflictuels et sélectionner les règles appropriées dans une pléthore de normes et de coutumes apparaît comme une tâche extrêmement complexe. Par conséquent, pourquoi ne pas envisager de définir un ensemble complet de principes, pratiques et procédures à mettre en oeuvre sur le plan international dans le but de protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité ? Le Centre d’étude et de recherche de l’Académie de droit international de La Haye a précisément conçu un programme dont le but est d’explorer et d’analyser cette démarche. Ce volume présente le résultat des études préparées par les directeurs de recherche et les rapports plus spécifiques produits par les chercheurs dans le cadre de ce programme. Utilisés ensemble, ces documents permettent d’analyser de façon approfondie l’importance qu’il y a à établir des règles et les institutions durables visant à protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité contre les risques liés aux conflits armés et autres trafics illégaux.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 28.
It is a real challenge to deal with the subject of economic sanctions, a topic where law meets politics, while touching upon almost all areas of the law: public international law, private international law, even private law and public law, not to mention the "internal" law of certain international organizations particularly active in the field, especially the EC/EU.
Sometimes considered as a "punitive" and "brutal" instrument, economic sanctions - even when adopted by a universal institution - have often proven to be ineffective. While the issue of the effectiveness of sanctions, as such, goes indeed beyond legal considerations, it would be fallacious to think that lawyers should confine themselves to an abstract analysis of the phenomenon or that legal tools would have practically no effect on the shape of the measures to be taken. On the contrary, law is at the core of the very concept of sanctions, and it is through legal tools that sanctions may be tailored to the ends to be pursued, reinforcing, by so doing, the effectiveness of the international legal system.
In light of the current developments under way - which concern both institutional sanctions and decentralized countermeasures, as well as the often inextricable intertwining between these two levels - the judicious choice made by the Curatorium of the Academy was propitious for taking a fresh look at the issue of unity and diversity of sanctions under international law.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 23.
This volume is the product of a joint effort at the Research Centre of the Hague Academy of International Law. In addition to the introductory reports by the two directors of studies, it assembles the contributions of participants from 15 countries - a group of young lawyers from very diverse legal cultures, who have since embarked on auspicious professional and academic careers. The topic selected, i.e., the instruments of international environmental policy,
was an expedition into as yet uncharted territory, in the borderland of international economic law and international environmental law. Together we
enter what Nobel laureate Douglass C. North has called the “non-ergodic” world of environmental régimes, teeming with political and regulatory systems that are frequently subject to unforeseeable technological and natural changes. This collection of studies is an attempt to address those challenges and to assess them from a legal perspective. Contributions are grouped in three parts: the focus of Part I is on the relationship of international trade and the environment; Part II deals with the problems of development and the environment; and Part III concentrates on the
role of specific economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 22.
In a relatively short time the concept of “sustainable development” has become firmly established in the field of international law. The World Commission on Environment and Development concisely defined sustainable development as follows: “development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This definition takes into account the needs of both the present and future generations as well as the capacity of the earth and its natural resources which by clear implication should not be depleted by a small group of people (in industrialized countries).
The aim of this book is threefold : to review the genesis and to clarify the meaning of the concept of sustainable development, as well as to assess its status within public international law. Furthermore, it examines the legal principles that have emerged in the pursuit of sustainable development. Lastly, it assesses to what extent the actual evolution of law demonstrates the balance and integration with all pertinent fields of international law as urged by the Rio, Johannesburg, and World Summit documents. This is the second volume in the Hague Academy of International Law Pocket Book series; it contains the text of the course given at the Hague Academy by Professor Schrijver.

Cet ouvrage répond à trois objectifs : examiner la naissance du concept de développement durable, clarifier sa signification et évaluer son statut dans le droit international public. Il examine également les principes juridiques nés de la poursuite du développement durable. Enfin, il examine l’évolution actuelle du droit par rapport aux exigences énoncées à Rio, à Johannesburg et au cours du dernier sommet mondial en ce qui concerne l’intégration du concept de développement durable dans tous les domaines pertinents du droit international.
We are witnessing a new golden age of space conquest. During the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union had sought to place their space exploits in the framework of international law. Today that trend towards accountability is being reversed. Individualistic logic is prevailing and the founding principles of international space law are increasingly being put aside. Legal scholars and practitioners must now find a balance between the development of space activities funded by the private sector and the interests of all states. Responding to this challenge, this bilingual volume collects the leading contributions to the 2017 Summer Courses session of the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations. The essays are structured around two objectives : to analyse the foundations and principles of space law since its creation, and to discern its direction over the next fifty years. Featuring original work from leading young legal scholars from around the world, this collection explores a little-known area of law and seeks to support space exploration for the benefit of all humanity.

Nous assistons à un nouvel âge d’or de la conquête spatiale. Durant la guerre froide, les États-Unis et l’Union soviétique avaient cherché à placer leurs exploits spatiaux dans le cadre du droit international. Aujourd’hui la tendance s’est inversée, la logique individualiste semble l’emporter. Certains grands principes du droit international de l’espace sont mis de côté ou réinterprétés par la pratique. Le juriste doit trouver ici un équilibre entre le développement des activités spatiales soutenu par des fonds privés et la prise en compte de l’intérêt de tous les Etats. Afin de répondre à ce défi, ce volume bilingue regroupe les travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche de la session 2017. Deux approches scientifiques sont reflétées dans cet ouvrage. La première analyse les fondements et les grands principes du droit de l’espace depuis 1967, date de la signature du Traité de l’espace. La seconde propose une étude plus prospective pour determiner l’évolution du droit de l’espace dans les prochaines cinquante années. Ce volume permet de participer au rayonnement international d’une discipline peu connue et poser le cadre juridique des activités spatiales en développement.