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Author: Samantha Besson
Depuis son entrée dans la jurisprudence arbitrale de la fin du XIXe siècle, la due diligence aura connu un succès croissant en droit international. Sa nature, ses sources et son régime n’en demeurent pas moins indéterminés. En réponse aux objections auxquelles elle est désormais soumise, ce cours dresse un état critique de la pratique de la due diligence en droit international. L’objectif est de déterminer si un principe, standard et/ou une obligation de due diligence existent en droit international général, de dégager ce qui pourrait constituer sa structure normative, son fondement et son régime ; d’établir les conditions, le contenu et les modalités de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité internationale pour négligence ; et, enfin, d’examiner les spécificités de la due diligence dans quelques régimes spéciaux comme le droit international de l’environnement, de la cybersécurité et des droits de l’homme. Plus généralement, le cours explore aussi les raisons du renouveau de la due diligence dans l’histoire récente du droit international, et explique ce que ce renouveau nous révèle de l’état de l’ordre juridique et institutionnel international et de ses possibilités de réforme.
Le droit international à la lumière de la pratique: l’introuvable théorie de la réalité. Cours général de droit international public, par A. PELLET, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris-Nanterre.
Ce cours général s’efforce de présenter un panorama synthétique du droit international tel qu’il est appliqué en ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. L’auteur considère le droit comme un outil irremplaçable de pacification des relations internationales et de coexistence entre les acteurs (que l’on ne saurait limiter aux seuls États). Il ne s’interdit pas de critiquer les doctrines qui se bornent à fustiger le droit positif sans faire aucune proposition constructive pour l’améliorer, qui l’utilisent à des fins politiques, ou qui l’abordent sous le prisme déformant de spécialisations trop étroites. Il constate qu’aucune théorie ne rend pleinement compte de la diversité de ses règles, des mécanismes de leur formation ou de leur mise en œuvre, qui ne peut être appréhendée par le biais d’une approche dogmatique.
Globalization, Personal Jurisdiction and the Internet. Responding to the Challenge of adapting settled Principles and Precedents. General Course of Private International Law, by P. D. TROOBOFF.
In addition to the prestigious Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law in hardback, the Curatorium of the Academy has decided to yearly publish, in English or French, certain courses from the private or public international law sessions in the form of low-cost "pocket books". These courses, given to the Academy’s students by eminent specialists, focus on topics which are of particular interest, especially from a pedagogical perspective, to students and, more generally, to all who take an interest in the principal questions of international law. With this new publication, the Academy hopes to fully fulfil its role in the diffusion and promotion of international law, by making it accessible to all.

A côté de la célèbre collection reliée des cours de l’Académie de droit international, le Curatorium de l’Académie a souhaité publier chaque année quelques cours des sessions de droit international privé et public, en anglais et en français, sous la forme de « livres de poche » et donc à un prix extrêmement réduit. Ces cours délivrés aux étudiants de l’Académie par des spécialistes éminents portent sur des sujets dont l’intérêt est particulièrement marqué, en particulier du point de vue pédagogique, pour la formation des étudiants et, de manière plus générale, pour l’information de tous ceux qui s’intéressent aux grandes questions du droit international. Avec cette nouvelle réalisation l’Académie a le souci de pleinement remplir son rôle en matière de diffusion et de promotion du droit international ainsi rendu accessible à tous.
Author: Felix Dasser
“Soft law” is a current buzzword and considered a panacea for all kinds of issues that arise in international commercial arbitration. Very little research has, however, been done on the dogmatic underpinnings of the concept and its actual legal relevance. This course follows the development of the so-called “soft law” from its origins in public international law to commercial arbitration, where it is used today as a label for various instruments and phenomena, covering both procedural aspects and the applicable substantive law: model laws, arbitration rules, guidelines, the UNIDROIT Principles, the lex mercatoria, and others.
It presents three particularly well-known sets of guidelines by the International Bar Association and discusses the pros and cons of “soft law” instruments and their potential normativity. The analysis suggests that “soft law” instruments are typically less well recognised in practice than is generally assumed. The author explains what such instruments can achieve and what minimum requirements they have to fulfil to at least aspire to some legitimacy. He argues ultimately that “soft law” instruments can be very useful tools, but they do not carry any normativity.
Author: Anne Peters
The plight of animal individuals and species inflicted on them by human activity is a global problem with detrimental repercussions for all humans and for the entire planet. This book gives an overview of the most important international legal regimes that directly address and indirectly affect animals. It covers species conservation treaties, notably the international whaling regime, the farm animal protection rules of the EU, international trade law and the international law of armed conflict. It also analyses the potential for an international regime of animal rights. Finding that international law creates more harm than good for animals, the auther suggests progressive treaty interpretation, treaty making and animal interest representation to close the animal welfare gap in international law. A body of global animal law needs to be developed, accompanied by critical global animal studies.
Par leur globalité et leur gravité, les menaces pesant sur la biodiversité font naître un pressant besoin de droit international. Les États ont adopté en 1992, sous l’égide des Nations Unies, la Convention sur la diversité biologique. De nombreuses conventions sectorielles et/ou régionales coexistent à ses côtés, ainsi qu’un ensemble de règles coutumières. L’étude du droit international de la biodiversité conduit aussi à dépasser les enjeux de protection ou préservation pour aborder les questions que posent l’utilisation et l’exploitation de la biodiversité. En cela, le droit international de la biodiversité entre en interactions, et parfois en conflit, avec d’autres règles du droit international.
L’ambition de cet ouvrage n’est pas d’offrir une présentation exhaustive d’une matière abondante mais encore éparse, mais bien plutôt de participer à sa conceptualisation. Le droit international de la biodiversité est aussi un excellent laboratoire pour étudier les évolutions en cours du droit international contemporain, notamment l’institutionnalisation de la coopération, le développement d’un droit dérivé, l’articulation entre les règles coutumières et conventionnelles, les mécanismes de contrôle et d’accompagnement de l’État innovants.
Franco Ferrari: Forum Shopping despite Unification of Law
It has often been suggested that forum shopping is “evil” and needs to be eradicated. And it is in this context that one must understand statements by commentators to the effect that the unification of substantive law through international conventions constitutes one way to reach this result. These lectures show not only that the qualification of forum shopping as something that is deplorable is outdated, that the negative attitude vis—à—vis forum shopping seems grounded on outdated preconception and prejudice, and disregards, for example, that critical analysis has demonstrated that forum shopping also has beneficial effects, such as the promotion of ethical representation of one’s client, the protection of access to justice, and the provision of a remedy for every injury.
These lectures also show that the drafting of uniform substantive law convention cannot prevent forum shopping, for many reasons, of which these lectures create a taxonomy. The reasons are classified into two main categories, namely convention-extrinsic and convention-intrinsic reasons. The former category comprises those reasons upon which uniform substantive law conventions do not have an impact at all, and which therefore will continue to exist regardless of the coming into force of any such convention. These reasons range from the costs of access to justice to the bias of potential adjudicators to the enforceability of judgments. These and the other convention-extrinsic reasons discussed in these lectures are and will not be influenced by uniform substantive law conventions.
The convention-intrinsic reasons, on the other hand, are reasons that relate to the nature and design of uniform substantive law conventions, and include their limited substantive and international spheres of application as well as their limited scope of application, the need to provide for reservations, etc. And no drafting efforts will be able to do away with these convention-intrinsic reasons, because they touch upon features of these conventions that are ontological in nature.
The lectures also address another forum shopping reason that cannot be overcome, namely the impossibility to ensure uniform applications and interpretations of the various uniform substantive law conventions. As these lectures show, as long as these conventions are interpreted horizontally, diverging interpretations and applications by courts of different jurisdictions of conventions that need to be drafted using vague language cannot be avoided. This is due mostly to a natural tendency by adjudicators to rely on their domestic legal background and notions when having to resolve problems arising in the context of the interpretation and application uniform substantive law conventions.
It is in light of all of the above that the lectures predict that forum shopping is here to stay.
We are witnessing a new golden age of space conquest. During the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union had sought to place their space exploits in the framework of international law. Today that trend towards accountability is being reversed. Individualistic logic is prevailing and the founding principles of international space law are increasingly being put aside. Legal scholars and practitioners must now find a balance between the development of space activities funded by the private sector and the interests of all states. Responding to this challenge, this bilingual volume collects the leading contributions to the 2017 Summer Courses session of the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations. The essays are structured around two objectives : to analyse the foundations and principles of space law since its creation, and to discern its direction over the next fifty years. Featuring original work from leading young legal scholars from around the world, this collection explores a little-known area of law and seeks to support space exploration for the benefit of all humanity.

Nous assistons à un nouvel âge d’or de la conquête spatiale. Durant la guerre froide, les États-Unis et l’Union soviétique avaient cherché à placer leurs exploits spatiaux dans le cadre du droit international. Aujourd’hui la tendance s’est inversée, la logique individualiste semble l’emporter. Certains grands principes du droit international de l’espace sont mis de côté ou réinterprétés par la pratique. Le juriste doit trouver ici un équilibre entre le développement des activités spatiales soutenu par des fonds privés et la prise en compte de l’intérêt de tous les Etats. Afin de répondre à ce défi, ce volume bilingue regroupe les travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche de la session 2017. Deux approches scientifiques sont reflétées dans cet ouvrage. La première analyse les fondements et les grands principes du droit de l’espace depuis 1967, date de la signature du Traité de l’espace. La seconde propose une étude plus prospective pour determiner l’évolution du droit de l’espace dans les prochaines cinquante années. Ce volume permet de participer au rayonnement international d’une discipline peu connue et poser le cadre juridique des activités spatiales en développement.
American Schools of International Law, by H. H. KOH, Sterling Professor of International Law at Yale Law School.
Is there still one international law and does the United States of America really believe in it? This lecture inaugurating the Hague Academy’s first Winter Session, by an American scholar who served as US State Department Legal Adviser, argues that Americans do believe in international law as part of their nation’s founding credo. Although recent US administrations have challenged 21st century international law, most American lawyers and legal scholars remain committed to the rule of international law. This dominant strand of international thinking among American academics and practitioners inhabits a school with strong historical roots known as the “’New’ New Haven School of International Law.” While some American schools of international legal thought diminish international law, they remain the exception. The “New” New Haven School argues, both positively and normatively, that rules of transnational legal process and substance must ensure that international law still matters. As America and the world together face such 21st Century globalization challenges as climate change, pandemic, and migration, this dominant American school remains determined to ensure that the United States will pay decent respect to international law.

Animals in International Law, by A. PETERS, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law Heidelberg.
The plight of animal individuals and species inflicted on them by human activity is a global problem with detrimental repercussions for all humans and for the entire planet. The book gives an overview of the most important international legal regimes which directly address animals and which indirectly affect them. It covers species conservation treaties, notably the international whaling regime, the farm animal protection rules of the EU, international trade law, and the international law of armed conflict. It also analyses the potential of international fundamental rights for animals. Finding that international law creates more harm than good for animals, the book suggests progressive treaty interpretation, treaty-making, and animal interest representation for closing the animal welfare gap in international law. A body of global animal law needs to be developed, accompanied by critical global animal studies.