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Author: Anne Peters
The plight of animal individuals and species inflicted on them by human activity is a global problem with detrimental repercussions for all humans and for the entire planet. This book gives an overview of the most important international legal regimes that directly address and indirectly affect animals. It covers species conservation treaties, notably the international whaling regime, the farm animal protection rules of the EU, international trade law and the international law of armed conflict. It also analyses the potential for an international regime of animal rights. Finding that international law creates more harm than good for animals, the auther suggests progressive treaty interpretation, treaty making and animal interest representation to close the animal welfare gap in international law. A body of global animal law needs to be developed, accompanied by critical global animal studies.
Author: Samantha Besson
Depuis son entrée dans la jurisprudence arbitrale de la fin du XIXe siècle, la due diligence aura connu un succès croissant en droit international. Sa nature, ses sources et son régime n’en demeurent pas moins indéterminés. En réponse aux objections auxquelles elle est désormais soumise, ce cours dresse un état critique de la pratique de la due diligence en droit international. L’objectif est de déterminer si un principe, standard et/ou une obligation de due diligence existent en droit international général, de dégager ce qui pourrait constituer sa structure normative, son fondement et son régime ; d’établir les conditions, le contenu et les modalités de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité internationale pour négligence ; et, enfin, d’examiner les spécificités de la due diligence dans quelques régimes spéciaux comme le droit international de l’environnement, de la cybersécurité et des droits de l’homme. Plus généralement, le cours explore aussi les raisons du renouveau de la due diligence dans l’histoire récente du droit international, et explique ce que ce renouveau nous révèle de l’état de l’ordre juridique et institutionnel international et de ses possibilités de réforme.
Le droit international à la lumière de la pratique: l’introuvable théorie de la réalité. Cours général de droit international public, par A. PELLET, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris-Nanterre.
Ce cours général s’efforce de présenter un panorama synthétique du droit international tel qu’il est appliqué en ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. L’auteur considère le droit comme un outil irremplaçable de pacification des relations internationales et de coexistence entre les acteurs (que l’on ne saurait limiter aux seuls États). Il ne s’interdit pas de critiquer les doctrines qui se bornent à fustiger le droit positif sans faire aucune proposition constructive pour l’améliorer, qui l’utilisent à des fins politiques, ou qui l’abordent sous le prisme déformant de spécialisations trop étroites. Il constate qu’aucune théorie ne rend pleinement compte de la diversité de ses règles, des mécanismes de leur formation ou de leur mise en œuvre, qui ne peut être appréhendée par le biais d’une approche dogmatique.
In his published Hague Academy general course lectures on “Globalization, Personal Jurisdiction and the Internet” Peter Trooboff reviews how courts in the United States, the European Union and a number of countries have responded to the challenge of adapting settled principles and precedents to cases arising from Internet usage. He examines the recent U.S. Supreme Court cases addressing general and specific personal jurisdiction and how U.S. appellate courts have applied the Court’s holdings in disputes arising use of the Internet. Mr. Trooboff summarizes and analyzes eleven European Union Court of Justice decisions and related scholarship that interpret the jurisdictional provisions of Brussels I Regulation and its successor in the context of Internet usage and that arise from tort and contract claims (including infringement of intellectual property and related rights). He also discusses selected decisions and scholarship to date addressing analogous personal jurisdiction issues in decisions of courts of Canada, Japan, China, Latin America and India. Finally, Mr. Trooboff presents an overview of the important projects that incorporate the principles emerging from these many judicial decisions and that have been undertaken by Hague Conference on Private International Law, the American Law Institute, the European Max Planck Group on Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property, the International Law Association and the International Law Institute.
Author: Felix Dasser
“Soft law” is a current buzzword and considered a panacea for all kinds of issues that arise in international commercial arbitration. Very little research has, however, been done on the dogmatic underpinnings of the concept and its actual legal relevance. This course follows the development of the so-called “soft law” from its origins in public international law to commercial arbitration, where it is used today as a label for various instruments and phenomena, covering both procedural aspects and the applicable substantive law: model laws, arbitration rules, guidelines, the UNIDROIT Principles, the lex mercatoria, and others.
It presents three particularly well-known sets of guidelines by the International Bar Association and discusses the pros and cons of “soft law” instruments and their potential normativity. The analysis suggests that “soft law” instruments are typically less well recognised in practice than is generally assumed. The author explains what such instruments can achieve and what minimum requirements they have to fulfil to at least aspire to some legitimacy. He argues ultimately that “soft law” instruments can be very useful tools, but they do not carry any normativity.
Par leur globalité et leur gravité, les menaces pesant sur la biodiversité font naître un pressant besoin de droit international. Les États ont adopté en 1992, sous l’égide des Nations Unies, la Convention sur la diversité biologique. De nombreuses conventions sectorielles et/ou régionales coexistent à ses côtés, ainsi qu’un ensemble de règles coutumières. L’étude du droit international de la biodiversité conduit aussi à dépasser les enjeux de protection ou préservation pour aborder les questions que posent l’utilisation et l’exploitation de la biodiversité. En cela, le droit international de la biodiversité entre en interactions, et parfois en conflit, avec d’autres règles du droit international.
L’ambition de cet ouvrage n’est pas d’offrir une présentation exhaustive d’une matière abondante mais encore éparse, mais bien plutôt de participer à sa conceptualisation. Le droit international de la biodiversité est aussi un excellent laboratoire pour étudier les évolutions en cours du droit international contemporain, notamment l’institutionnalisation de la coopération, le développement d’un droit dérivé, l’articulation entre les règles coutumières et conventionnelles, les mécanismes de contrôle et d’accompagnement de l’État innovants.
Franco Ferrari: Forum Shopping despite Unification of Law
It has often been suggested that forum shopping is “evil” and needs to be eradicated. And it is in this context that one must understand statements by commentators to the effect that the unification of substantive law through international conventions constitutes one way to reach this result. These lectures show not only that the qualification of forum shopping as something that is deplorable is outdated, that the negative attitude vis—à—vis forum shopping seems grounded on outdated preconception and prejudice, and disregards, for example, that critical analysis has demonstrated that forum shopping also has beneficial effects, such as the promotion of ethical representation of one’s client, the protection of access to justice, and the provision of a remedy for every injury.
These lectures also show that the drafting of uniform substantive law convention cannot prevent forum shopping, for many reasons, of which these lectures create a taxonomy. The reasons are classified into two main categories, namely convention-extrinsic and convention-intrinsic reasons. The former category comprises those reasons upon which uniform substantive law conventions do not have an impact at all, and which therefore will continue to exist regardless of the coming into force of any such convention. These reasons range from the costs of access to justice to the bias of potential adjudicators to the enforceability of judgments. These and the other convention-extrinsic reasons discussed in these lectures are and will not be influenced by uniform substantive law conventions.
The convention-intrinsic reasons, on the other hand, are reasons that relate to the nature and design of uniform substantive law conventions, and include their limited substantive and international spheres of application as well as their limited scope of application, the need to provide for reservations, etc. And no drafting efforts will be able to do away with these convention-intrinsic reasons, because they touch upon features of these conventions that are ontological in nature.
The lectures also address another forum shopping reason that cannot be overcome, namely the impossibility to ensure uniform applications and interpretations of the various uniform substantive law conventions. As these lectures show, as long as these conventions are interpreted horizontally, diverging interpretations and applications by courts of different jurisdictions of conventions that need to be drafted using vague language cannot be avoided. This is due mostly to a natural tendency by adjudicators to rely on their domestic legal background and notions when having to resolve problems arising in the context of the interpretation and application uniform substantive law conventions.
It is in light of all of the above that the lectures predict that forum shopping is here to stay.