Following Eric Hayot’s argument that modernity is a theory of the world as the “universal,” this paper traces the “world concept” in Marvel Comics industry (MC) and its synergy with the film industry of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). Speaking from the field of World Literature Studies, I show how superhero comics activate the “world concept” through the global dissemination of the infinitely stretchable Marvel Universe. My argument is that by operating in terms of a universe with moldable diegetic rules, the popular culture of MC and MCU does not merely reflect the current state of the world concept, but also affects its evolution and its spread. The universality of the modern worldview has come to be less concerned with the realist effect and more with increasing all-inclusiveness and infinite stretchability. The increased plasticity of the world concept puts a great pressure on world literary ecologies and increasingly expands and shapes what Beecroft called global literary ecology. What Marvel Comics has done in recent decades, especially through the interplay with the film industry, is to show how the expansion of the world concept entails that however large we imagine the world to be, it is always already too small.
This essay looks at the relationship between the human and the animal with a particular focus on Ovid’s Metamorphoses. At the centre of the analysis is Ovid’s basic understanding of anthrozoology and his narrative about Lycaon. With continuous reference to the translations into English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish, this interpretation is concerned with the subtle linguistic phenomena that can only be derived from the Latin original text; and which, regardless of the obvious content of the metamorphosis, subvert the traditional distinction between human and animal. The anthropological difference is closely connected to the order of language, which has been considered a defining characteristic of the human being. It is therefore all the more remarkable that the plurality and convertibility of languages can be addressed in the light of Ovid’s anthrozoology. With this in mind, the essay concludes by discussing the concept of World Literature.
Although postcolonial approaches in world literature and translation studies have produced much necessary scholarship, they have in general disregarded the historical ‘native’ author and translator working in colonial or semicolonial settings. Studies on Urdu literature in the 19th century, for instance, focus mostly on the role of British Orientalists. Drawing upon Allen’s trans-indigenous project, I propose to read the historical ‘native’ text approaching it with a concept drawn from Amerindian ethnohistory: ‘double mistaken identity’ (DMI). While ‘native’ intellectuals might have unwittingly contributed to furthering the cause of Western colonialists, DMI allows for two perspectives to coexist in the ‘native’ text, one of which is a ‘native’, non-hybrid perspective. I take the failed colonial project in 16th-century Japan as a model, focusing on a translation that both Urdu and Japanese intellectuals undertook: that of Aesop’s Fables. There is a case for considering ‘native’ literature fully colonial, fully ‘native’, and fully global.
Cet article est le premier d’une série concernant les matériaux attestés dans les inscriptions en nord arabique ancien. Ces documents ont une importance particulière pour l’histoire de l’arabe, son contexte linguistique, son développement et sa classification. Dans cet article, nous publions onze inscriptions safaïtiques, gravées sur sept pierres, qui ont été découvertes pendant le Badia Survey de 2019, en Jordanie nord-occidentale. La plupart de ces textes témoignent de nouvelles caractéristiques grammaticales et lexicales qui jettent un éclairage important sur une phase obscure de l’histoire de l’arabe pré-islamique. En particulier, il s’agit, par exemple, de l’attestation de la particule de subordination ḥt (= ḥattV), de la négation ls (= laysa), de la nūnation, et de locutions idiomatiques qui sont attestées plus tard dans le Coran, comme tmny h-mt (il souhaita la mort [en bataille]), cf. Coran tamannūna l-mawta.
The Ḥiǧāz in the 11th/17th century has long been considered the center of a “revival” movement in ḥadīṯ studies. This assumption has spread widely among scholars of the 11th-/17th- and 12th-/18th-century Islamic world based on the fact that the isnāds of many major ḥadīṯ scholars from almost all parts of the Islamic world from the 11th/17th century onward return to a group of scholars in the Ḥiǧāz. The scholarly group that is assumed to have played a critical role in the flourishing of ḥadīṯ studies in the 11th/17th-century Ḥiǧāz is called the al-Ḥaramayn circle or network. However, to date, there have been no studies that investigate what was actually happening in that century concerning ḥadīṯ studies. Examining the actual ḥadīṯ studies of one of the scholars at the core of al-Ḥaramayn circle, i.e. Ibrāhīm b. Ḥasan al-Kūrānī, will unpack the main interest of Ḥiǧāzī scholars in ḥadīṯ literature, reveal previously unstudied aspects of ḥadīṯ studies in the 11th/17th-century Ḥiǧāz, correct some unexamined assumptions, and situate the ḥadīṯ efforts of scholars of the 11th/17th-century Ḥiǧāz within a general framework of developments within ḥadīṯ studies.