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A Humanitarian Law Perspective
The United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) is the result of dialogue and negotiation between the Salvadorian Government and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). It constitutes the first UN attempt to mediate the settlement of an non-international armed conflict. This work studies the benefits and disadvantages intrinsic to a political body in monitoring the respect for international humanitarian law, and analyzes new requirements demanded by the enlargement of the functions of the UN. The analysis is based on the reports of the ONUSAL, prepared during its peace-making phase, and focuses on the question of the extent to which the mission succeeded in assuring a better protection of the norms of humanitarian law.
The work is based on a Ph.D. thesis originally written in French. Tathiana Flores Acuña received her doctorate from the European University Institute in Florence in 1994. She now works for the Organization of American States in Costa Rica.
Editor: Daniel Warner
This work brings together the papers presented at a conference on `New Dimensions of Peacekeeping' which was convened at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in March 1994. The papers address the new role of peacekeeping (including peacekeeping and peace enforcement) which is now emerging and also places an emphasis upon the role of the `newcomers' in peacekeeping, specifically Japan and Germany. The collection of papers, by many distinguished scholars in the field, actively discusses both the strengths and weaknesses of the United Nations peacekeeping efforts in meeting the increasing demands placed upon it due to the enormous upsurge in ethnic, religious and other local conflicts.

`The 1990s have seen wide swings in public opinion towards United Nations Peacekeeping. The euphoria and high expectations regarding what the United Nations can deliver have been replaced by the rude shocks and deflated assessments of its capacity to successfully cope with conflicts. In this context, it would be highly desirable that a judicious balance be struck in the evaluation of United Nations peacekeeping activities, which takes fully into account the great potential they have for contributing to international peace and security and to the reduction of human suffering. At the same time, such a review should include a candid discussion regarding the weaknesses and shortcomings of peacekeeping activities. '
(Excerpt from the Introduction by Yasushi Akashi, Chief of Mission of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the former Yugoslavia)
The stationing of foreign armed forces abroad in peacetime has been a constant and distinctive feature of the post-1945 bipolar world. This book is the first systematic study of the subject to look beyond the areas of criminal and civil jurisdiction to broader issues of international law arising out of the establishment and use of foreign military installations in time of peace.
Implementation of basing agreements between states sending and states hosting foreign armed forces has resulted in a large body of state practice that includes such major international incidents as the U.S. air raid on Libya in 1986 and the U.S. intervention in Panama in 1989. This book assesses the future of foreign military installations against the background of the end of the Cold War, the unification of Germany, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, and the emerging European security order.