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Philip C. C. Huang (黄宗智)

This article demonstrates how the “old agriculture” of grain production operates today mainly by an administrative model, while the “new agriculture” of high-value-added products (high-end vegetables, fruits, meat-poultry-fish, and eggs-milk) operates mainly by a laissez faire market model. The former serves to protect low-value agricultural products from violent market price swings and international competition to ensure China’s “grain security,” but is prone to a commandist approach that can disregard peasant interests and wishes. The latter has stimulated peasant initiatives through market incentives, but suffers from violent price fluctuations and merchant extractions. A third model, “specialty co-ops,” has thus far been guided by a mistaken model of trying to imitate U.S. co-ops, which are purely economic entities, to the disregard of Chinese village communities. This article urges the adoption of an “East Asian” model of semi-governmental, integrated co-ops based on peasant communities (villages), extending from there up through the governmental hierarchy of townships, counties, provinces, and the central levels. Such co-ops provide “vertical integration” (processing and marketing) services for small-peasant agricultural products, offer technical assistance, organize the purchase and supply of agricultural inputs, extend credit services, engage in community activities, and see to peasant social-political interests, as was done so successfully in Japan-Korea-Taiwan, most especially during the period when their per capita GDP and relative proportions of industry and agriculture stood at levels roughly comparable to China’s today.

本文论证,中国的“旧农业”——谷物生产——今天主要运作于一个行政模式之下,而“新农业”——高值蔬菜、水果、肉-禽-鱼和蛋奶——则主要运作于一个放任的市场模式之下。在国际市场竞争和粮食价格相对低廉的压力下,前者起到保护中国谷物生产和“粮食安全”的作用,但也显示倾向过度依赖指令性手段和无视农民意愿的弱点。后者则成功地凭借市场收益激发了小农的创新性,但经常受到市场价格波动的冲击以及商业资本的榨取。作为第三种模式的“专业合作社”,则主要试图模仿美国的纯经济性合作社模式,无视中国村庄,不符合中国实际。本文提倡,中国应该模仿“东亚”模式的半政府性综合农协,扎根于村庄社区、由此往上延伸到乡-镇、县、省、中央各级政府。它们主要为小农提供“纵向一体化”的产品加工和销售服务、技术咨询与服务、信贷服务、组织农资供销、组织社区活动、并参与国家政治来维护小农利益,一如日-韩-台历史经验中,在其人均gdp以及工农业所占相对比例大致相当于如今中国的那段时期。 (This article is in English.)

Philip C. C. Huang (黄宗智)

This article attempts to provide a broad overview response to the question: Whence and whither Chinese agriculture? The point of departure is a summary and discussion of the ten articles of this symposium, five empirical and theoretical discussions from economic historians, two from scholars doing solid and illuminating research on the “new agriculture,” and finally three that explore the issue of what road Chinese agriculture should adopt for the future. The article places the agricultural and rural history of the People’s Republic into the broad perspective of changes since the eighteenth century. It distinguishes between cooperativization, collectivization, and the people’s communes, and between the open-field “old” grain agriculture and the high-value-added “new agriculture.” It examines the differences between the New World’s “lots of land and few people” and the East Asian “lots of people and little land” agricultures, and the former’s land-and-capital-dual-intensifying and the latter’s labor-and-capital-dual-intensifying paths of modern change. From that perspective, it examines the successes and failures of the people’s communes vs. cooperativization–collectivization, of dragon-head enterprises vs. small peasants, and of the American specialty co-ops vs. the East Asian integrated co-ops.

本文试图对中国的农业从哪里来、到哪里去的问题做一个总体性的讨论。文章从对本专辑的十篇论文的总结和讨论出发。首先是五篇经验和理论探索的经济史论文,而后是两篇扎实和充满阐释性的关于近三十多年来兴起的“新农业”的研究,最后是三篇关于当前的农业与农村发展道路的探索。文章从18世纪以来的社会经济史视角来检视人民共和国农业发展的历史,区别合作化、集体化、人民公社化,以及“旧”大田(谷物)农业与高附加值“新农业”。文章论述地多人少的“新大陆”农业与人多地少的东亚农业,区别前者的土地与资本双密集化和后者的劳动与资本双密集化的不同现代演变道路,据此来检视人民公社VS. 合作化-集体化,“龙头企业”VS.小农经济,以及美国“专业合作社”VS. 东亚综合农协模式的得失。 (This article is in English.)

Chang Liu (刘昶), Shiqing Bao (包诗卿) and Danqing Pei (裴丹青)

The xianggu (shiitake) mushroom industry in Xixia county, Henan, emerged and initially experienced rapid growth during the reform and opening up period. It has benefited from both the rapid expansion of the food consumption market in China and the guidance and support of the local government. After thirty years of sustained expansion, the growth of the mushroom market began to slow down and competition within the industry became fierce. Facing rich and powerful mushroom dealers, individual mushroom farmers have had to bear the brunt of market fluctuations. To break the predicament of farmers’ suffering from low prices (because of the bumper harvest paradox) and to help farmers protect their interests and gain a fair share of the industry’s profits, and thus to achieve sustained and healthy development of the mushroom industry, important institutional innovations are needed.

西峡县香菇产业在改革开放时期经历了从零开始的飞速增长,这既得益于食品消费市场的迅速扩张,也得益于地方政府的引导和扶持。在经历了三十年的持续扩张后,香菇市场增速开始放缓,业内竞争压力凸显。面对财大气粗的菇行,势孤力单的个体菇农首当其冲,受到市场的挤压。要破解菇贱伤农的困局,帮助菇农保护自己的利益和分享产业的利润,并实现香菇产业的健康持续发展,就需要在产业组织和制度上进行创新。 (This article is in English.)

Creativity in Chinese Schools

Perspectival Frames of Paradox and Possibility

Carol A. Mullen

Is creativity occurring in China’s primary and secondary schools? The thesis undergirding this article is that creativity is a paradox and possibility within this test-centric culture. Discussion is of the literature on creativity from an international perspective, with support from an original pilot study. The Chinese schools visited arose out of an inquiry into crucial issues in basic education involving high-stakes accountability and effects on the creativity and innovation of children and youth. Pursuing knowledge in action, the u.s. Fulbright Scholar used observation, conversation, and interviews to explore creative processes in five rural and urban preK-12 schools within Southwest China. A teacher training institute confirmed that creative learning transpires within some of the primary schools in the region. Analyses of the data collected suggest the potential for creativity in schooling to co-exist with external accountability. These emergent results offer a lens for understanding intriguing developments of schooling in Chinese education.

Efficacy of Grade Retention in Macao

Evidence from pisa 2009

Yisu Zhou and Yi-Lee Wong

Grade retention is widely used in Macao at the elementary and secondary levels. While many teachers and students believe retention gives low-performing students the opportunity to catch up, there is little empirical evidence to support such a claim. Using Programme in International Student Assessment 2009 (pisa, 2009) data, we examine the effect of grade retention on students’ learning time, learning strategy, metacognition, and academic achievement. We also analyze the influence of school policies to determine the net effect of retention. Our findings suggest that, contrary to conventional thinking, grade retention has a highly negative effect on the above factors. Students who repeated a grade did not benefit from this second chance, but rather were substantially held back in their learning trajectory. We suggest that schools in Macao shift their focus to designing programs that will help students with greater needs, rather than focusing exclusively on identifying such students.

Hamish Coates, Paula Kelly and Ryan Naylor

Online education has grown exponentially over the last few decades, churning through a swarm of acronyms, ambiguities and potentialities. Substantial energy has been invested in producing technology, building academic capability, and understanding learners and markets. Though it feels pervasive, online education is comparatively new in the scheme of higher education, and key education and business models remain in formation. To spur advance, this paper argues that as online education matures increasing energy must shift from supplier-centric concerns about provision to instead ensuring learner value and success. We argue that online education presents new opportunities not just for the mechanics of higher education, but for improving each student’s experience and outcomes. Central to such advance is a clear picture of student success, cogent perspectives for understanding students, effective strategies for analysing and interpreting huge volumes of data, and more evidence-based academic leadership. The paper investigates each of these areas, provoking an agenda to guide further student and institutional achievement.

The Master Plan and the California Higher Education System

Success, Failure and Implications for China

Simon Marginson

The 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education in California, created by University of California President Clark Kerr and his contemporaries, brought college within reach of millions of American families for the first time and fashioned the world’s strongest system of public research universities. The California idea, combining excellence with access within a tiered system of higher education, and underpinned by a taxpayer consensus on the common good inherent in equality of opportunity in education, became the leading model for higher education across the world. Yet the political conditions supporting the California idea in California itself have evaporated. The taxpayer consensus broke down two decades after the Master Plan began and California no longer provides the fiscal conditions necessary to ensure both excellence and access, especially access for non-white and immigrant families. Many students are now turned away, public tuition is rising, the great research universities face resource challenges, and educational participation in California, once the national leader in the United States, lags far behind. The article traces the rise and partial fall of the Californian system of higher education as embodied in the Master Plan, and draws out lessons for other countries in general, and China in particular.

Oon Seng Tan

The 21st century era of rapidly changing technology entails cognizance of the changing nature of knowledge, learning and environments. New models of knowledge building and knowledge co-creation are emerging. Personalized learning takes on new dimensions with mobile devices and new tools for sharing and meta-thinking. Evidences from research in learning sciences and neurosciences point to the importance of understanding human cognition and behaviors in optimizing the use of technology for learning. Future learning entails a powerful use of the cognitive propensity to learn by imitation and modeling as well as the novelty of inquiry and creation. Didactics are replaced by conversational learning with social media as powerful platforms. Apart from the analytics and logic, future learning incorporates big picture thinking, multiple perspective thinking and connective thinking to flourish problem-solving and creativity. The address will conclude with some implications for design and practice.