Dietary changes towards veganism offer a solution to tackling not only unethical nonhuman animal exploitation but also to minimizing several environmental and health problems faced worldwide. This research examines what challenges and characteristics are associated with dietary choices among animal rights advocates (ARA) in Spain. The characteristics we test for include (a) general environmental and health awareness, (b) commitment to the animal rights movement, and (c) perceptions of animal emotions. From a sample of 235 ARA, our results showed that the challenges related to diet vary largely across different diet types, with the most common among vegans being a perceived lack of societal support, whereas for omnivores, the taste of animal-based products. On average, vegan ARA were found to hold both the highest levels of environmental awareness and commitment to the animal rights movement, while omnivores were least likely to draw similarities between nonhuman animal and human emotions.