The article provides data that attest to the severity of the European demographic, economic, and political decline, and considers one of its manifestations, the capacity of the secular state to cope with the transformations of the European religious landscape. The secular state has been a European invention, and the decline of Europe has inevitable repercussions for its vitality, in Europe and beyond. In Europe, the weakness of the secular state has been revealed by the diversification of the European religious landscape. A declining Europe is less and less capable of managing diversity using the tools provided by the secular state. Analysis of the different models of secular states implemented in Europe is followed by a reexamination of the issue of the decline of Europe, and of its effect on the reforms that are required to adapt the secular state to the new conditions.
Beyond the End of the European Universal Dream
Legal Theory, Codification, and Local Practice
Islamic foundations ( waqf, pl. awqāf) have been an integral part of Yemeni society both for managing private wealth and as a legal frame for charity and public infrastructure. This book focuses on four socially grounded fields of legal knowledge: fiqh, codification, individual waqf cases, and everyday waqf-related knowledge. It combines textual analysis with ethnography and seeks to understand how Islamic law is approached, used, produced, and validated in selected topics of waqf law where there are tensions between ideals and pragmatic rules. The study analyses central Zaydī fiqh works such as the Sharḥ al-azhār cluster, imamic decrees, fatwās, and waqf documents, mostly from Zaydī, northern Yemen.
With Special Reference to the Reign of Murad Giray (1678-1683)
The Crimean Khanate was often treated as a semi-nomadic, watered-down version of the Golden Horde, or yet another vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. This book revises these views by exploring the Khanate’s political and legal systems, which combined well organized and well developed institutions, which were rooted in different traditions (Golden Horde, Islamic and Ottoman). Drawing on a wide range of sources, including the Crimean court registers from the reign of Murad Giray (1678-1683), the book examines the role of the khan, members of his council and other officials in the Crimean political and judicial systems as well as the practice of the Crimean sharia court during the reign of Murad Giray.