In the United Kingdom, four distinct time periods may be identified during which differentiated information about their genetic origins may be available to a donor-conceived person. In addition, an individual conceived as the result of a surrogacy arrangement and who is also subject to a subsequent Parental Order may access differentiated information relating to the surrogacy arrangement dependent on which of the UK nations the Parental Order was made in. This paper outlines the historical, legal and social context of these provisions and identifies continuing issues for debate and possible further regulatory and legislative reform.
Although the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child recognises procedural rights of the child in addition to substantive rights, it is rather silent on the fundamental right to an effective remedy. The concept of access to justice for children has nevertheless emerged in the past decades and manifested itself firmly in the international human rights and sustainable development agendas. Access to justice is grounded in the right of the child to seek remedies in case of (alleged) rights violations. It implies legal empowerment of children and access to justice mechanisms and remedies that are child-sensitive. So far, access to justice, with a specific focus on children, lacks careful consideration, conceptualisation and contextualisation in academic research and writing. This contribution explores the meaning of access to justice for children, as a right and procedural concept, and paves the way for the development of a more specific research and implementation agenda.