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Author: Georg Nolte
The book describes the development of certain important treaties from the perspective of their practice, with a view to assessing whether these treaties are, or have been, on the “rise” or in “decline”. Following a glance at major European peace treaties prior to the UN Charter, the book focuses on developments over the last thirty years with respect to the UN Charter and its rules on the use of force, human rights treaties, the WTO agreements, investment treaties, and environmental treaties. It looks at these treaties from the perspective of an observer as well as from the perspective of a practitioner who is called to apply a treaty, taking into account the rules of interpretation under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The book describes, in particular, how the International Law Commission has elucidated the significance of the rules of interpretation in its conclusions on “Subsequent agreements and subsequent practice in relation to the interpretation of treaties” (2018), and it connects this work with the broader developments.
“Soft Law” in International Commercial Arbitration, by F. DASSER, Adjunct Professor at the University of Zurich, Partner at Homburger Law Firm
"Soft law" is a current buzzword and considered a panacea for all kinds of issues that arise in international commercial arbitration. Very little research has, however, been done on the dogmatic underpinnings of the concept and its actual legal relevance. This course follows the development of "soft law" from its controversial origins in public international law, where it denotes legally non-binding agreements between states, to commercial arbitration, where it is used as a label for various, very different instruments and phenomena that enjoy particular recognition, covering both procedural aspects and the applicable law on the merits: model laws, arbitration rules, guidelines, the UNIDROIT Principles, the lex mercatoria, and others. Deep dives into three particularly well known sets of guidelines by the International Bar Association allow to highlight the pros and cons of "soft law" instruments and to scrutinize claims of certain normativity. Empirical analysis suggests that "soft law" instruments are often less well recognized in practice than is generally assumed. A synthesis explains what such instruments may or may not achieve and what minimum requirements they have to fulfill in order at least to aspire to some legitimacy. In essence, "soft law" instruments can be useful, even very useful tools, but contrary to a widely held belief they do not carry any normativity.

Le rôle du politique en droit international privé. Cours général de droit international privé, par P. KINSCH, professeur à l’Université du Luxembourg.
Dans une vision très classique (et idéalisée) du droit international privé, les règles de celui-ci sont nettement séparées de considérations politiques : elles s’orientent essentiellement sur des considérations de proximité et de prévisibilité de la loi applicable et des tribunaux compétents. Cette conception n’a cependant jamais correspondu parfaitement à la réalité. Des considérations politiques, par opposition aux considérations techniques, interviennent en droit international privé, sous une double forme : défense d’intérêts publics (ou d’intérêts politiques) proprement dits, mais aussi définition de politiques, législatives et jurisprudentielles, qui influent directement sur les solutions adoptées. C’est ce que le cours essaie de montrer, à travers des explications sur les implications politiques des grands choix méthodologiques du droit international privé ; sur les reflets en droit international privé des choix politiques majeurs à l’intérieur d’une société démocratique, ou non démocratique ; et sur les externalités que sont le droit public étranger, l’intégration fédérale ou supranationale des Etats et, enfin, les relations extérieures de l’Etat du for avec des Etats tiers.
Carmen Tiburcio: The Current Practice of International Cooperation in Civil Matters

Ruiz De Santiago: Aspects juridiques des mouvements forcés de personnes
Le Droit International a accompagné depuis le début le phénomène migratoire aussi ancien que l’humanité. Ce sont surtout les mouvements migratoires forcés qui ont requis la création de divers instruments juridiques internationaux pour protéger efficacement la dignité des êtres humains. L’ONU a confié au Haut-Commissariat pour les réfugiés (HCR) le mandat de protéger les réfugiés. Ce mandat a été peu à peu élargi afin d’offrir cette protection à un nombre croissant de personnes qui en ont besoin.
El Derecho Internacional ha acompañado desde sus inicios el fenómeno migratorio, tan antiguo como la humanidad. Han sido sobre todo los movimientos migratorios forzados los que han requerido la creación de diversos instrumentos jurídicos internacionales para proteger eficaz y justamente la dignidad de los seres humanos. La ONU le ha dado al Alto Comisionado para Refugiados (HCR) el mandato de dar protección a los refugiados. Este mandato ha sido paulatinamente ampliado para ofrecer tal protección a un número cada vez más creciente de personas necesitadas de la misma.
Fabian Novak: The System of Reparations in the Jurisprudence of the Interamerican Court of Human Rights;
Georg Nolte: Treaties and their Practice, Symptoms of their Rise or Decline
Les tribunaux internationaux et leur mission commune de réalisation de la justice : développements, état actuel et perspectives, Conférence spéciale (2017), par A. A. CANÇADO TRINDADE, juge à la Cour internationale de Justice;

The Prohibition of Torture in Public International Law, by F. M. MARIÑO MENÉNDEZ, Professor at the University Carlos III of Madrid;

Effets pour l’individu des régimes de protection de droit international, par C. SWINARSKI, professeur et consultant indépendant en droit international;

L’éthique du procès international, leçon inaugurale, par J.-P. COT, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne).

Discours sur les méthodes du droit international privé (des formes juridiques de l’inter-altérité), Cours général de droit international privé (2017), par H. Muir Watt, professeure à l’école de droit de Sciences po, Paris.

L’éthique du procès international. Leçon inaugurale, par J.-P. COT, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris I.
International law and the Hague, the city where so many institutions of international law are established, are intimately connected. This book presents the views developed by some of the active players in the legal capital of the world on a number of the current challenges faced by international law. The starting point was a seminar held in the Peace Palace, reviewing some of the legal policy questions of today, such as the acceptance of the jurisdiction of the ICJ as a prerequisite to dispute settlement. Supplementing these articles on classical international law are essays dealing with the younger discipline of international criminal law, as practiced by the ICC and other Tribunals, offering ideas on, among other things. how to speed up the lengthy procedures of international criminal tribunals. Other contributions debate the universality of human rights and their legal protection.
The Allocation of Power between Arbitral Tribunals and State Courts by A.S. Rau
The ultimate question that runs through all of our law of arbitration is the allocation of responsibility between state courts and arbitral tribunals: Arbitrators are private individuals, non-public actors. If they assume the power to adjudicate the affairs of other private parties – or, for that matter, of public entities – that is, if they presume to bind others with definitive judgments – we must ask, where does this authority come from? A shorthand for this question is to speak in terms of “jurisdiction.” (The French word compétence conveys the equivalent concept of the power to adjudicate).
In the only cases which are likely to claim our attention, the notion of an arbitrator’s “jurisdiction” will be precisely congruent with the presence of “consent”: A “jurisdictional” challenge simply rests on the proposition that a party should not be required to submit himself to arbitral determination of any dispute without having first agreed to do so: For where else may an arbitrator – fundamentally different in this respect from a state judge – derive his legitimacy? The answer is, only from that exercise of private ordering, of mercantile self-government, which characterizes any voluntary commercial transaction. A “jurisdictional” challenge asserts that this is “simply not the sort of process to which I have been willing to subject myself.”
I begin then with the dimensions of “consent” – how it should properly be understood, and how it manifests itself in connection with the various contexts in which challenges to the duty to arbitrate are raised. I then carry forward the discussion to explore how party autonomy in the contracting process may give rise to the voluntary reallocation of presumptive authority (from courts to arbitrators and conversely, from arbitrators to courts); I conclude with the necessary inquiry into the nature of autonomy with respect to the governing law – the “chosen law” that will govern the agreement to arbitrate itself.
In Wartime Sexual Violence at the International Level: A Legal Perspective Dr. Caterina E. Arrabal Ward discusses the understanding of wartime sexual violence by the international tribunals and argues that wartime sexual violence often takes place without the explicit purpose to destroy a community or population and is not necessarily a strategic choice. This research suggests that a more focused approach based on a much clearer definition of these crimes would help to remedy deficiencies at the different stages of international justice in relation to these crimes.

The Law Governing International Commercial Contracts: Hard Law Versus Soft Law by Michael Joachim Bonell
The Private-Public Divide in International Dispute Resolution by Burkhard Hess