Indonesia is a country known for its religious diversity. Studies on hope and religion have had their impact on individual’s lives. In fact, studies that connect religion and hope have thus far remained somewhat scarce. However, there is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, and psychometrically sound tools to identify individuals with a high level of hope and religious state. Though support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Hope scale using classical test theory approaches, it has not been subject to modern test theory analysis. This study aims to use the modern test theory approach for assessment of psychometric properties of the newly created Religious Hope Scale (RHS). Findings from this study confirmed that RHS is a valid and reliable scale to measure religious hope.
Religion plays an important part in modern Indonesia. To understand its contemporary outlook, this chapter offers a historical sketch of the arrival and development of religion. It proposes that the process involves three important stages, namely syncretism, polarisation, and Islamisation. The complex process of the making of religions in Indonesia has distinctive features from their origins. Early in history, religion in Indonesia was a blend of animism and ancestor worship, but with the arrival of new religions there was syncretistic blend between the old and the new beliefs. Later on with the development of religious institution, there was polarisation between the purist and the syncretistic camps. This is true in general, but the divide between putihan (purist) and abangan (syncretistic) was particularly important in the case of Islam. The modern outlook of religion in Indonesia is greatly affected by the process of Islamisation and the shift from abangan majority toward putihan majority.
The study of the religious lives of persons with same-sex attractions (PSSA) has recently grown. Researchers have explored ways in which PSSA use religion to deal with two commonly experienced stresses; statements that homosexuality is a violation of the sacred and the challenges of integrating religious and sexual identities. The majority of these studies sample young adult PSSA who are religious. The present study filled a gap in the literature by examining the correlates of religious coping with a variety of general life stressors in 363 paid and volunteer American PSSA of various ages and levels of religiosity. Positive religious coping was associated with beneficial adjustment to a general life stressor, over and above demographic and general religious variables. Negative religious coping was uniquely related to poorer outcomes from a stressful event. There was a significant interaction between level of religiosity and sexual identity development in their relationship to negative religious coping. Religious adults with less sexual identity development were more likely to use negative religious coping methods as compared to more developed religious persons or nonreligious participants. There was no interaction between religiosity and sexual identity development concerning their relationship with positive religious coping. Implications and limitations of the current study are discussed.
The education system at the university level in Indonesia teaches religion as a mandatory course for the students, and it can form their religious orientation. Religion orientation and hope have played an important role in the educational field. Both hope and religious orientation play essential roles for university students. The study aimed to examine the relationship between hope and religious orientation among university students. The Adult Hope Scale was used to measure hope, while the Intrinsic/Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale was used to measure religious orientation. Participants of this research were 439 people, consisting of religion-based university students (N = 314) and non-religion based university students (N = 125). This study found only internal religious orientation significantly contributed to the level of hope, both in religion-based university and non-religion-based university. The result will be discussed in detail, and further research will be suggested in this paper.
Indonesians have historically believed in the reality of God. God-self connectedness is a spiritual matter of socialized intergeneration and a foundation in which individual self-growth should be grounded. When religions entered Indonesia in the 14–16th centuries, those religions merely supported the devotion that had become an essential feature of the Indonesian self. Indonesian individuals grow up being taught to assign spiritual meaning in everyday experiences. The central purpose of the socialization is to ensure a consciousness of the presence of extraordinary power in everyone’s life, that is, God, the creator of the universe and humans. Indonesian people live the reality of God through spiritual experience, or rituals and practices until they uncover the truth of the spiritual existence they believe in.
As the largest archipelagic state in the world, Indonesia has a unique and diverse religious landscape in various aspects. The spread of religions in the country that assimilate with local culture results in the difference of religious life in society. Religious politics run by the government and the rapid development of information technology have increased the complexity of relations between various institutions related to religion. Thus, in this context, the religious phenomenon is often a challenging field to study. This paper aims to examine religious life in Indonesia from a sociological perspective by discussing four main sub-themes: socio-historical development, the relationship between the state and religion, religious-based social conflict, and the impact of information technology on religious life in Indonesia.
Indonesia is one of the countries vulnerable to natural disasters. Positive changes or impacts after disasters are called posttraumatic growth. Spirituality, as one protective factor, was found to have contributed to posttraumatic growth. Spirituality is a sense that extends beyond circumstances and the personal quest for understanding answers to ultimate questions about life, meaning, and relationship with the sacred or transcendent. How people make sense of the world is influenced by spiritual beliefs. Survivors may find comfort from their beliefs, and they will assist them in positive growth. In this chapter, the author describes more about the relationship between spirituality and posttraumatic growth among disaster survivors in Indonesia.
This article explores the religiosity of Muslim women joining Srikandi Lintas Iman, a women interfaith community in Yogyakarta. Using Glock and Stark’s theory on religiosity from the sociological perspective and Tiliouine & Belgoumidi’s domains of religiosity, the research questions are how the religiosity of Muslim women in SRILI, and how their activities in interfaith dialogue contribute to their religiosity dimensions as an individual. Data was gathered through questionnaires and in-depth interviews. This paper finds out that Muslim women joining an interfaith community can improve their religiosity in several ways. Activities and programs of SRILI contribute to its member religiosity both directly and indirectly.
This writing aims to map the trends in Islamic psychology intervention in Indonesia. The result of the analysis showed that Islamic psychology intervention is divided into two categories: original Islamic psychology intervention, and integrative Islamic psychology intervention. Original Islamic psychology intervention consists of intervention that is based on worship and on morals (akhlaq). The category of original Islamic intervention based on worship includes Dhikr, prayer (shalat), Quranic, and duʾa therapy, while patience therapy, gratitude therapy, and repentance therapy are in the category of original Islamic psychology intervention based on morals. Meanwhile, integrative Islamic psychology intervention covers general integrative Islamic psychology intervention, Islamic psychology intervention based on worship, and Islamic psychology intervention based on morals. General integrative Islamic psychology interventions consist of Islamic cognitive therapy, religious cognitive behavioral therapy, religious coping therapy, and Islamic counseling. Integrative psychology interventions based on worship consist of dhikr relaxation therapy and relaxation by reciting Quran. Integrative Islamic psychology intervention based on morals consists of gratitude cognitive therapy, gratitude cognitive behavioral therapy, and forgiveness therapy.