The Development of Pakistan’s Grundnorm
Yaqoob Khan Bangash
The constitution of a country is the supreme national institution, and its provisions significantly affect the development of politics and society. The process of constitution making is key for understanding the constitution, and an assessment of the process makes possible a better and deeper understanding of the workings of the country, its politics, economy, and polity. The discussion of Islamic constitutionalism has recently gained momentum, especially in the wake of a reorganization of the Middle East and the Arab Spring. This paper focuses on the development of the first “Islamic” constitution, that of Pakistan, and analyzes the issues and problems it faced. It focuses on the issue of sovereignty, a concept underlying modern democracy, and uses the debates of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan during the critical debate on the Objectives Resolution, in March 1949. The experience of Pakistan is seminal, as we historically understand and currently assess the issues of Islam, democracy, and the modern nation state.
The Turkish Raid in Iceland 1627
In this volume, the history of these extraordinary events and their long-lasting memory are traced and analysed from the viewpoints of maritime warfare, cultural encounters and existential options, based on extensive use of various sources from several languages.