Browse results

Series:

Pin Xue, Changhui Shi, Wenxia Zhang, Guangxi He and Yandong Zhao

Abstract

This paper is based on the data from one survey on primary and middle school students across China to comprehensively analyze the future expectations that parents of primary and middle school students have for their children in education, occupation, and going abroad. As indicated by survey results, parents generally had relatively high expectations for the future education of their children, and a considerable number of parents expected that their children could study abroad. Occupations with a high degree of professionalism, high stability, and high social reputation were most desirable for parents, while the most undesirable thing for parents is that their children became workers and farmers. The expectations illustrated relatively obvious differences in social stratum.

Series:

Qingzhe Lu

Abstract

This paper provides an analysis of income and consumption of urban and rural residents in China in 2013 and an approximation of the development trend in living expenditures among urban and rural residents in China in 2014. In 2013, the income for urban and rural residents in China continued to grow, their standard of living continued to improve, the level of consumption further increased, and both the philosophy and mode of consumption changed. However, the consumption expectation was not optimistic due to China’s macroeconomic situation; high cost of housing and rising commodity prices affected immediate consumption and weakened the potential for consumption growth. The marginal effect of current policies for expanding domestic demand was close to the limit; a safe and loose consumption environment is still unavailable in the current state of society. It is expected that China’s GDP growth rate will be slightly higher than 7% and total retail sales of consumer goods will grow by about 13% in 2014.

Series:

Peilin Li and Yi Zhang

Abstract

In 2013, China further advanced into the deep waters of reform. Overall, a series of policies for structural adjustment, growth stabilization, and development promotion yielded the following preliminary results. Economic growth rates stabilized; employment rates showed a positive trend in which aggregate demand slightly exceeded aggregate supply, and urbanization levels are expected to surpass 54%. Compulsory education further developed in a balanced way. University enrollment favored central and western regions. The transformation of government functions accelerated, and non-governmental organizations are expected to grow substantially in the future. More and more people were covered by social insurance. However, problems concerning development imbalance and unsustainability still exist. Statistical data relating to the first three quarters of 2013 indicated that the growth of income for urban and rural residents slowed down. Rising food and housing costs affected the consumption lifestyles of the ordinary people and delayed the naturalization of rural migrant workers. University graduates experienced difficulties in finding employment—structural unemployment will be problem that will continue into the foreseeable future. The problem in providing for the elderly will become more striking. Mass incidents caused by environmental deterioration rapidly increased. Violent terrorist incidents in some areas had an impact society’s sense of security as a whole society. Therefore, continuing to properly handling the intensity, progress, and direction of macro-control and making stable efforts in guaranteeing and improving the people’s livelihood will be of very great practical significance in 2014—the year of reform. Receiving adequate education and finding gainful employment are the two chief aspirations of every Chinese. It is necessary to take all these factors into considerations when pushing forward with relevant policies related to reforming the household registration system. With the implementation of the two-child policy, which allowed for couples to have two children if either the husband or the wife were only children, it is necessary to prevent a rebound in population numbers. It is imperative to soundly pushing forward rural land and housing system reform on the premise of protecting the interests of farmers. The most critical task lies in vigorously innovating the mode of social governance and promoting social harmony and stability.

Series:

Lianfei Zhao and Feng Tian

Abstract

The generation born in the 1990s has become the main portion of university students; their life and values have a great impact on China’s future development. The growth of this generation coincides with the incoming of globalization and unfolding of informatization in China. Globalization and informatization have exerted a profound impact on university students born in the 1990s. They play with smartphones, use notebook computers, watch US television series, listen to European and US pop music, and chat with friends online. Meanwhile, contemporary university students are facing a society where the gap between the rich and the poor is widening, and the lack of trust and individualism is prevalent. They are examining and building their life world from their perspectives.

Series:

Rong Mo, Xiao Zhou and Xuduo Meng

Abstract

In 2013, China’s employment steadily improved, new employment continued to grow in urban areas, 10.66 million people found new employment in urban areas in the first three quarters, and annual goals and tasks were over fulfilled in advanced. Urban registered unemployment rate was 4.04%, lower than the control level −4.6%. In recent years, industrial transformation and upgrading has generally exerted a positive impact on aggregate employment and has optimized the employment structure. The internal structures of the secondary and tertiary industries have greatly changed, while the tertiary industry has become the first and foremost industry for absorbing employment. Frictional unemployment in industrial transformation and upgrading will produce negative effects on employment in the traditional manufacturing sector at a specific time.

Series:

Yue Yuan, Hui Zhang and Jianjian Jiang

Abstract

According to a 2013 survey, the quality of life of urban residents improved somewhat in many aspects such as the capability to bear price fluctuation, consumer confidence index, degree of confidence in anti-corruption. The social mentality and sentiment of residents were generally rational and positive, reflecting the effects of efforts made by the new government. The polarization between the rich and the poor, housing prices, and commodity prices were the top social concerns of residents. Residents were increasingly worried about the issue concerning provision for the elderly. More attention was paid to anti-corruption and social stability. The proportion of residents who paid attention to social morality increased. In terms of expectations about the future, individuals were less confident in the future competitiveness, but were highly confident in future development and the international status of the country.

Series:

Lijie Fang

Abstract

The year 2013 was the fifth year since the launch of the new medical reform. According to relevant statistical data, the State further intensified investment in the health field, and the medical resources and services of the medical institutions at various levels greatly increased, but medical expenses still soared and the problem concerning high costs for getting medical treatment still failed to be effectively solved. For progress in medical reform, private capital was energetically supported to run medical institutions and private hospitals rapidly developed; the effect of reform in the grassroots health service system is not ideal. The current developmental direction does not adapt to “initial diagnosis and treatment at the grassroots” and transformation of the service model; public hospital reform preliminarily unfolded, resulting in a certain progress but followed by many uncertainties. Although the coverage and level of medical security has continuously increased, it is potentially unsustainable. It is hoped that government-led operations can be better combined with the market mechanism, and the grassroots health service model can be transformed by implementing a general medical practitioner system in the future.

Series:

Houyi Zhang and Peng Lü

Abstract

This paper used the data from the Sampling Survey on Chinese Private Enterprises to analyze the rights and social responsibilities of private enterprises and private enterprise owners and their development environment. It was found that private enterprise owners highly recognized participation in social management, but social management as understood by most people was still restricted to the economic and enterprise levels. For specific actions relating to social responsibilities, more than 60% of enterprise owners said they once made a charitable donation, but the proportion of enterprises which released social responsibility reports was still very low, and some enterprise owners showed differences in the perception and actions of social responsibilities. In addition, with the examination of enterprise donation, stipulated fees, apportioned charges, entertainment and public relations, and evaluation of enterprise establishment, this paper analyzed some dilemmas for private enterprises during development. According to survey data covering the past ten years, private enterprise owners had decreasing subjective evaluations of their own economic, social, and political statuses, but generally they still positioned themselves at the middle and higher levels.

Series:

Fayun Wang and Yi Ding

Abstract

In 2013, various social security programs steadily developed, and endowments and medical insurance tended to fully cover both urban and rural areas, and social security benefits continued to increase. There was a balance between income and expenditure concerning various funds, but expenditure growth was higher than income growth. The State began to carry out a top-level design of a pension system. The basic pension fund gap, postponement of retirement ages, reform of endowment insurance system for government departments and public institutions have attracted the attention from the public at large.

Series:

Hong Liang

Abstract

According to CLDS survey data from Sun Yat-Sen University in 2012, the average length of education for China’s labor force reached nine years, but the training of professional skills was insufficient and the people with professional technical level qualification certificates were available only in small numbers. The regional labor mobility rate was higher than 15%, and there was an obvious age difference. More than 20% of respondents migrated registered permanence residence once, and a conspicuous gender difference existed. The labor force was dominated by employees, followed by farmers, the self-employed, and employers; more than 9% of population was unemployed. Only half of workers signed written contracts. Long working times was prevalent, and a certain proportion of people were subject to infringement of rights and interests in their work. Workers thought poorly of such working indicators as income and working environment; making a living was still the first need of workers.