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Shared water resources in South Asia face various challenges including scarcity, population growth, and climate change impacts on all the riparians. Consequently, national calls for water security have become louder. As a result, collaboration among the nations of South Asia for ensuring equitable sharing of such water resources has not been optimal. While most countries do not have reliable systems for data generation, those possessing some hydrological data consider them state secrets, restricting their exchange. Even when treaty obligations exist, data-sharing practices are ad hoc, and the range of information shared is limited. Thus, negotiating new transboundary water treaties amongst South Asia’s riparian countries has become a daunting task, and enforcing existing ones remains a real challenge.

Abstract

Shared water resources have influenced South Asia’s geography and history, as well as riparians’ responses to the challenges of utilizing, managing, and protecting such resources. Because of scarcity, population growth, and climate change impacts on all the riparians, national calls for water security have become louder. Consequently, collaboration among the nations of South Asia for ensuring equitable sharing of such water resources has not been optimal. While most countries do not have reliable systems for data generation, those possessing some hydrological data consider them state secrets, restricting their exchange. Even when treaty obligations exist, data-sharing practices are ad hoc, and the range of information shared is limited. Thus, negotiating new transboundary water treaties amongst South Asia’s riparian countries has become a daunting task, and enforcing existing ones remains a real challenge.

In: Shared Watercourses and Water Security in South Asia

Abstract

In Addressing Corruption Allegations in International Arbitration, Brody K. Greenwald and Jennifer A. Ivers provide a comprehensive overview of the key issues that arise in international arbitrations involving allegations of corruption drawing upon their significant experience in these high-stakes cases, including in the only two reported investment treaty cases dismissed specifically as a result of corruption. Their monograph is a valuable resource guide that analyzes, among other things, the public policy against corruption, the requirements for establishing corruption, issues relating to the burden and standard of proof, how corruption has been proved in practice, and the legal consequences where corruption is established. Mr. Greenwald and Ms. Ivers also assess issues that arise where a sovereign State raises an arbitration defense based on alleged corruption, but does not prosecute the alleged wrongdoers in its domestic courts.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration
Author: Irmgard Marboe
Damages in Investor-State Arbitration: Current Issues and Challenges addresses specificities of the assessment of damages in investor-state disputes, reflecting the tensions between the sovereignty and self-determination of states and their legal obligations towards foreign investors. These tensions are primarily present in the context of compensation for expropriation, but other commitments of host states undertaken in bilateral investment treaties and contracts with foreign investors may also be in conflict with changing political and economic circumstances. With this background, the calculation of damages becomes a complex endeavor in each case. The lack of valuation principles that are uniformly accepted and implemented leads to uncertainty and unpredictability in practice. The present analysis tries to identify the most important issues and challenges, such as the choice of the valuation date, appropriate valuation methods, moral damages, and the awarding of interest.
Author: Irmgard Marboe

Abstract

The assessment of damages in investor-state arbitration involves complex legal and economic considerations. Particular challenges arise from the interdisciplinary nature of this endeavor. The present issue discusses some of the pertinent specificities in investor-state disputes reflecting the tensions between sovereignty and self-determination of states and their legal obligations towards foreign investors. These tensions are primarily present in the context of expropriation, but also commitments undertaken by states in bilateral investment treaties and contracts as well as changing economic circumstances need to be taken into consideration. The lack of valuation principles that are uniformly accepted and implemented leads to uncertainty and unpredictability in practice. The present volume analyses some of the most controversial and unsettled issues, including the choice of the valuation date, appropriate valuation methods, moral damages, and the awarding of interest.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration
In Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Investment Arbitration, Filippo Fontanelli offers an analysis of the subject for practitioners and scholars. The author undertakes two converging studies: first, the practice of investment tribunals is surveyed to provide a representative overview of how jurisdiction and admissibility operate in arbitration proceedings. Second, these concepts are studied in the wider framework of public international law litigation, in the attempt to solve the definitional issues, or at least trace them back to their theoretical background.

The analysis shows that the confusion prevailing in investment arbitration is largely a legacy of the comparable confusion that affects the notions of jurisdiction and admissibility in all kinds of dispute settlement under international law. Whilst the confusion is often irrelevant in the practice, some instances arise where it affects the outcome of the proceedings. The essay discusses some of these instances and recommends adopting a novel approach, which hinges on judicial discretion as the critical element of admissibility.
Its Interaction with the Minimum Standard and Its Customary Status
The fair and equitable treatment (‘FET’) standard is a type of protection found in BITs which has become in the last decades one of the most controversial provisions examined by arbitral tribunals. This book first examines the interaction between the ‘minimum standard of treatment’ (MST) and the FET standard and the question why States started referring to the former in their BITs. It also addresses the question whether the FET should be considered as an autonomous standard of protection under BITs. This book also examines the controversial proposition that the FET standard should now be considered as a rule of customary international law. I will show that while the practice of States to include FET clauses in their BITs can be considered as general, widespread and representative, it remains that it is not uniform and consistent enough for the standard to have crystallised into a customary rule. States also lack the necessary opinio juris when including the clause in their BITs.
International Investment Law and Arbitration: History, Modern Practice, and Future Prospects explores international law on foreign investment: its creation, functioning and evolution. Particularly, this paper presents a roadmap over the historical context within which investor-State arbitration developed. It provides an overview of the main actors, the protections afforded to foreign investors, the content of modern BITs, and the challenges facing the system today.

Abstract

International Investment Law is one of the most dynamically growing fields of International Law as shown by the volume of Bilateral Investment Treaties (bits), and investment chapters in a growing numbers of regional and mega-regional trade agreements. This paper explores the origin, evolution and operation of International Investment Law. It discusses the main actors, the protections afforded to foreign investments and investors, and the content of modern bits. The legal issues and challenges International Investment Law faces today are brought into perspective. Particularly, this paper provides an assessment of the measures put forth by the European Union aimed at transforming the traditional investor-State arbitration system to an Investment Court System. An examination of the nafta re-negotiations is also presented, including the impact that ceta, a trade deal between the eu and Canada could have in the outcome of the current re-negotiations.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration
Author: Nathalie Najjar
Arbitration and International Trade in the Arab Countries by Nathalie Najjar is masterful compendium of arbitration law in the Arab countries. A true study of comparative law in the purest sense of the term, the work puts into perspective the solutions retained in the various laws concerned and highlights both their convergences and divergences. Focusing on the laws of sixteen States, the author examines international trade arbitration in the MENA region and assesses the value of these solutions in a way that seeks to guide a practice which remains extraordinarily heterogeneous. The book provides an analysis of a large number of legal sources, court decisions as well as a presentation of the attitude of the courts towards arbitration in the States studied. Traditional and modern sources of international arbitration are examined through the prism of the two requirements of international trade, freedom and safety, the same prism through which the whole law of arbitration is studied. The book thus constitutes an indispensable guide to any arbitration specialist called to work with the Arab countries, both as a practitioner and as a theoretician.