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Jordan S. Potash

A Jungian and archetypal psychology approach to aesthetics includes noticing which archetypes are activated when viewing or engaging with art. Archetypes provide vitality to art and can be accessed by viewers through attention to bodily responses and emotional awareness enhanced by imagination. Connecting these personal experiences to the collective requires framing viewers' responses within comprehensible patterns. Joan Kellogg's theory ‘The Archetypal Stages of the Great Round of Mandala’ offers a system for identifying archetypes as states of consciousness and making them accessible to a wide audience in order to aid understanding of one's responses to art.

Bruce Hedman


The Haida, a First People of British Columbia, evolved over 3000 years an art form which is rich in archetypal images. Most Northwest Coast anthropologists study only the form of Haida art, but Wilson Duff and George MacDonald have pursued its meaning using terms that echo analytical psychology. In this paper, I argue that the structure of shamanic cosmology and Haida moieties parallel the distinction in the human psyche which Marie-Louise von Franz called the Unconscious Above and the Unconscious Below. The ‘marriage of opposites’, the reconciliation of Logos and Eros, Duff saw symbolized in Haida art by the Copper, which I call the ‘Haida Anthropos’. Using this parallel with the chthonic and the celestial, I then amplify the myth of ‘Eagle Chain and Giant Clam’ as it was portrayed in two argillite totem poles, which I argue show the peripeteia and lysis of the myth.

David Maclagan

Given that the idiom of archetypal psychology is emphatically figurative, how do we deal with non-figurative painting from this perspective? This paper focuses on the kind of abstract painting in which spontaneous, gestural marks create a ground where specific forms cannot be clearly distinguished (Jackson Pollock's ‘drip’ paintings being a well-known example). Such ‘chaotic’ paintings call into question the whole notion of what we mean by ‘image’. I relate these to Anton Ehrenzweig's concept of ‘inarticulate form’, as well as to some of James Hillman's ideas about aesthetic apprehension, and also draw on my own experience as an artist in creating a series called ‘The ground of All Being’.

Archetypes of Knowledge

The Relevance of Jung’s Psychology of Scientific Discovery for Understanding Contemporary Technoscience

H.A.E. (Hub) Zwart


This paper substantiates why Jung’s psychology is still highly relevant for understanding science today. I explore how his methods and insights allow us to come to terms with the phenomenon of scientific discovery. After outlining core Jungian concepts and insights concerning science, I will focus on the relationship between alchemy and modern science. Also, I will highlight Jung’s understanding of scientific research as a practice of the self, directed at individuation (the integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole). Finally, I discuss the role of archetypes in the context of discovery of modern science. Whereas archetypal ideas may function as sources of insight and inspiration, the task for researchers is to come to terms with them, instead of being overwhelmed by them. Besides case studies discussed by Jung himself, I also present more recent examples, taken from molecular life sciences research and climate change research.

Sally Bradshaw and Lance Storm

C.G. Jung proposed that archetypal symbols carry implicit meanings. We therefore hypothesised that symbol cueing facilitates memory and subsequent recall of meaning words associated with symbols. In the present study, participants either freely generated, or selected from a list, one meaning word for each of 30 symbols presented on screen. As expected, results showed little evidence of conscious knowledge of meaning words. Upon presentation of two sets of symbols and meaning words (15 pairs matched; 15 pairs mismatched), words from the matched-pairs set were correctly recalled significantly more often than words from the mismatched-pairs set. Our findings were considered from a cognitive and clinical perspective.

Aspects in Contexts

Studies in the History of Psychology of Religion


Edited by Jacob A. Belzen

Psychology of religion has been enjoying considerable attention of late; the number of publications and people involved in the field is rapidly increasing. It is, however, one of the oldest branches within psychology in general, and one of the few in which an interdisciplinary approach has been kept alive and fostered. The fate of the field has been quite varied in the countries where psychology of religion has been initiated and developed during the 20th century. In this volume, some aspects of this international history are examined. Coming from six different Western countries, each of the contributors has a record in the historiography of psychology and profound knowledge of psychology of religion. Their approaches combine elements from the history of mentalities, the social history of science and biographical studies.
The volume contains in-depth treatments of such topics as the growth of the field as reflected in university politics, developments within international organizations, and the personal involvement of contributors to the field. A wealth of information is provided on the background of the work of well known psychologists of religion like James Henry Leuba, Oskar Pfister, Gordon Allport, Werner Gruehn, Antoine Vergote and others.

Terrie Waddell

This article examines the body of locally and internationally produced cinema by Australian director Baz Luhrmann. A filmmaker who in the past has struggled to achieve critical credibility in the mainstream press, Luhrmann is consistently supported by multinationals like 20th Century Fox for his mass domestic and global appeal. Of interest in this analysis is the way in which each film plays with the dominant Australian cultural complex of the ‘lost child’. Rather than repeating the themes of helplessness and abandonment central to much Australian storytelling, Luhrmann invites us to play with the concept of being ‘lost’ – exploring it with childlike wonder and awe. His work has the promise of opening up a (Winnicottian) potential space of exploration, where we are invited to embrace being lost as way of entering into self and cultural discovery. It is likely that this return to play and creativity, in the extreme style that has become synonymous with Luhrmann, is the source of his audience loyalty.


Edited by Ralph L. Piedmont and Andrew Village